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The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


Coordinate Independent Convolutional Networks -- Isometry and Gauge Equivariant Convolutions on Riemannian Manifolds

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Motivated by the vast success of deep convolutional networks, there is a great interest in generalizing convolutions to non-Euclidean manifolds. A major complication in comparison to flat spaces is that it is unclear in which alignment a convolution kernel should be applied on a manifold. The underlying reason for this ambiguity is that general manifolds do not come with a canonical choice of reference frames (gauge). Kernels and features therefore have to be expressed relative to arbitrary coordinates. We argue that the particular choice of coordinatization should not affect a network's inference -- it should be coordinate independent. A simultaneous demand for coordinate independence and weight sharing is shown to result in a requirement on the network to be equivariant under local gauge transformations (changes of local reference frames). The ambiguity of reference frames depends thereby on the G-structure of the manifold, such that the necessary level of gauge equivariance is prescribed by the corresponding structure group G. Coordinate independent convolutions are proven to be equivariant w.r.t. those isometries that are symmetries of the G-structure. The resulting theory is formulated in a coordinate free fashion in terms of fiber bundles. To exemplify the design of coordinate independent convolutions, we implement a convolutional network on the M\"obius strip. The generality of our differential geometric formulation of convolutional networks is demonstrated by an extensive literature review which explains a large number of Euclidean CNNs, spherical CNNs and CNNs on general surfaces as specific instances of coordinate independent convolutions.


ModelArts 3.0: a Arue AI Accelerator

#artificialintelligence

HUAWEI CLOUD's Enterprise Intelligence (EI) has achieved strong results in numerous industry competitions and evaluations. HUAWEI CLOUD has invested heavily in basic research AI in three domains: computer vision, speech and semantics, and decision optimization. To help AI empower all industries, the ModelArts enabling platform supports plug-and-play deployment of HUAWEI CLOUD's research results in areas such as automatic machine learning, small sample learning, federated learning, and pre-training models. In the area of perception, HUAWEI CLOUD continues to be an industry-leader in ImageNet large-scale image classification, WebVision large-scale network image classification, MS-COCO two-dimensional object detection, nuScenes three-dimensional object detection, and visual pre-training model verification, including downstream classification, detection, and segmentation. Perception models driven by ModelArts have been widely used in sectors such as medical image analysis, oil and gas exploration, and fault detection in manufacturing. In cognition, HUAWEI CLOUD integrates industry data based on its expertise in semantic analysis and knowledge graphs.


gradSim: Differentiable simulation for system identification and visuomotor control

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We consider the problem of estimating an object's physical properties such as mass, friction, and elasticity directly from video sequences. Such a system identification problem is fundamentally ill-posed due to the loss of information during image formation. Current solutions require precise 3D labels which are labor-intensive to gather, and infeasible to create for many systems such as deformable solids or cloth. We present gradSim, a framework that overcomes the dependence on 3D supervision by leveraging differentiable multiphysics simulation and differentiable rendering to jointly model the evolution of scene dynamics and image formation. This novel combination enables backpropagation from pixels in a video sequence through to the underlying physical attributes that generated them. Moreover, our unified computation graph -- spanning from the dynamics and through the rendering process -- enables learning in challenging visuomotor control tasks, without relying on state-based (3D) supervision, while obtaining performance competitive to or better than techniques that rely on precise 3D labels.


Interpretable Hyperspectral AI: When Non-Convex Modeling meets Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hyperspectral imaging, also known as image spectrometry, is a landmark technique in geoscience and remote sensing (RS). In the past decade, enormous efforts have been made to process and analyze these hyperspectral (HS) products mainly by means of seasoned experts. However, with the ever-growing volume of data, the bulk of costs in manpower and material resources poses new challenges on reducing the burden of manual labor and improving efficiency. For this reason, it is, therefore, urgent to develop more intelligent and automatic approaches for various HS RS applications. Machine learning (ML) tools with convex optimization have successfully undertaken the tasks of numerous artificial intelligence (AI)-related applications. However, their ability in handling complex practical problems remains limited, particularly for HS data, due to the effects of various spectral variabilities in the process of HS imaging and the complexity and redundancy of higher dimensional HS signals. Compared to the convex models, non-convex modeling, which is capable of characterizing more complex real scenes and providing the model interpretability technically and theoretically, has been proven to be a feasible solution to reduce the gap between challenging HS vision tasks and currently advanced intelligent data processing models.


Millimeter Wave Sensing: A Review of Application Pipelines and Building Blocks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The increasing bandwidth requirement of new wireless applications has lead to standardization of the millimeter wave spectrum for high-speed wireless communication. The millimeter wave spectrum is part of 5G and covers frequencies between 30 and 300 GHz corresponding to wavelengths ranging from 10 to 1 mm. Although millimeter wave is often considered as a communication medium, it has also proved to be an excellent 'sensor', thanks to its narrow beams, operation across a wide bandwidth, and interaction with atmospheric constituents. In this paper, which is to the best of our knowledge the first review that completely covers millimeter wave sensing application pipelines, we provide a comprehensive overview and analysis of different basic application pipeline building blocks, including hardware, algorithms, analytical models, and model evaluation techniques. The review also provides a taxonomy that highlights different millimeter wave sensing application domains. By performing a thorough analysis, complying with the systematic literature review methodology and reviewing 165 papers, we not only extend previous investigations focused only on communication aspects of the millimeter wave technology and using millimeter wave technology for active imaging, but also highlight scientific and technological challenges and trends, and provide a future perspective for applications of millimeter wave as a sensing technology.


A contribution to Optimal Transport on incomparable spaces

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Optimal Transport is a theory that allows to define geometrical notions of distance between probability distributions and to find correspondences, relationships, between sets of points. Many machine learning applications are derived from this theory, at the frontier between mathematics and optimization. This thesis proposes to study the complex scenario in which the different data belong to incomparable spaces. In particular we address the following questions: how to define and apply Optimal Transport between graphs, between structured data? How can it be adapted when the data are varied and not embedded in the same metric space? This thesis proposes a set of Optimal Transport tools for these different cases. An important part is notably devoted to the study of the Gromov-Wasserstein distance whose properties allow to define interesting transport problems on incomparable spaces. More broadly, we analyze the mathematical properties of the various proposed tools, we establish algorithmic solutions to compute them and we study their applicability in numerous machine learning scenarii which cover, in particular, classification, simplification, partitioning of structured data, as well as heterogeneous domain adaptation.


A data-driven proxy to Stoke's flow in porous media

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The objective for this work is to develop a data-driven proxy to high-fidelity numerical flow simulations using digital images. The proposed model can capture the flow field and permeability in a large verity of digital porous media based on solid grain geometry and pore size distribution by detailed analyses of the local pore geometry and the local flow fields. To develop the model, the detailed pore space geometry and simulation runs data from 3500 two-dimensional high-fidelity Lattice Boltzmann simulation runs are used to train and to predict the solutions with a high accuracy in much less computational time. The proposed methodology harness the enormous amount of generated data from high-fidelity flow simulations to decode the often under-utilized patterns in simulations and to accurately predict solutions to new cases. The developed model can truly capture the physics of the problem and enhance prediction capabilities of the simulations at a much lower cost. These predictive models, in essence, do not spatio-temporally reduce the order of the problem. They, however, possess the same numerical resolutions as their Lattice Boltzmann simulations equivalents do with the great advantage that their solutions can be achieved by significant reduction in computational costs (speed and memory).


Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application ; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2019)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance universities and their partners presented their competences in the field of artificial intelligence and their cross-border cooperations with the industry at the tri-national conference 'Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application' on March 13th, 2019 in Offenburg. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


Computational Optimal Transport

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Optimal Transport (OT) is a mathematical gem at the interface between probability, analysis and optimization. The goal of that theory is to define geometric tools that are useful to compare probability distributions. Earlier contributions originated from Monge's work in the 18th century, to be later rediscovered under a different formalism by Tolstoi in the 1920's, Kantorovich, Hitchcock and Koopmans in the 1940's. The problem was solved numerically by Dantzig in 1949 and others in the 1950's within the framework of linear programming, paving the way for major industrial applications in the second half of the 20th century. OT was later rediscovered under a different light by analysts in the 90's, following important work by Brenier and others, as well as in the computer vision/graphics fields under the name of earth mover's distances. Recent years have witnessed yet another revolution in the spread of OT, thanks to the emergence of approximate solvers that can scale to sizes and dimensions that are relevant to data sciences. Thanks to this newfound scalability, OT is being increasingly used to unlock various problems in imaging sciences (such as color or texture processing), computer vision and graphics (for shape manipulation) or machine learning (for regression,classification and density fitting). This short book reviews OT with a bias toward numerical methods and their applications in data sciences, and sheds lights on the theoretical properties of OT that make it particularly useful for some of these applications.