Histopathological image analysis is the gold standard to diagnose cancer. Carcinoma is a subtype of cancer that constitutes more than 80% of all cancer cases. Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are two major subtypes of carcinoma, diagnosed by microscopic study of biopsy slides. However, manual microscopic evaluation is a subjective and time-consuming process. Many researchers have reported methods to automate carcinoma detection and classification. The increasing use of artificial intelligence (AI) in the automation of carcinoma diagnosis also reveals a significant rise in the use of deep network models. In this systematic literature review, we present a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art approaches reported in carcinoma diagnosis using histopathological images. Studies are selected from well-known databases with strict inclusion/exclusion criteria. We have categorized the articles and recapitulated their methods based on specific organs of carcinoma origin. Further, we have summarized pertinent literature on AI methods, highlighted critical challenges and limitations, and provided insights on future research direction in automated carcinoma diagnosis. Out of 101 articles selected, most of the studies experimented on private datasets with varied image sizes, obtaining accuracy between 63% and 100%. Overall, this review highlights the need for a generalized AI-based carcinoma diagnostic system. Additionally, it is desirable to have accountable approaches to extract microscopic features from images of multiple magnifications that should mimic pathologists' evaluations.
Despite the myriad peer-reviewed papers demonstrating novel Artificial Intelligence (AI)-based solutions to COVID-19 challenges during the pandemic, few have made significant clinical impact. The impact of artificial intelligence during the COVID-19 pandemic was greatly limited by lack of model transparency. This systematic review examines the use of Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) during the pandemic and how its use could overcome barriers to real-world success. We find that successful use of XAI can improve model performance, instill trust in the end-user, and provide the value needed to affect user decision-making. We introduce the reader to common XAI techniques, their utility, and specific examples of their application. Evaluation of XAI results is also discussed as an important step to maximize the value of AI-based clinical decision support systems. We illustrate the classical, modern, and potential future trends of XAI to elucidate the evolution of novel XAI techniques. Finally, we provide a checklist of suggestions during the experimental design process supported by recent publications. Common challenges during the implementation of AI solutions are also addressed with specific examples of potential solutions. We hope this review may serve as a guide to improve the clinical impact of future AI-based solutions.
The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.
Iakovidis, D. K., Ooi, M., Kuang, Y. C., Demidenko, S., Shestakov, A., Sinitsin, V., Henry, M., Sciacchitano, A., Discetti, A., Donati, S., Norgia, M., Menychtas, A., Maglogiannis, I., Wriessnegger, S. C., Chacon, L. A. Barradas, Dimas, G., Filos, D., Aletras, A. H., Töger, J., Dong, F., Ren, S., Uhl, A., Paziewski, J., Geng, J., Fioranelli, F., Narayanan, R. M., Fernandez, C., Stiller, C., Malamousi, K., Kamnis, S., Delibasis, K., Wang, D., Zhang, J., Gao, R. X.
Signal processing is a fundamental component of almost any sensor-enabled system, with a wide range of applications across different scientific disciplines. Time series data, images, and video sequences comprise representative forms of signals that can be enhanced and analysed for information extraction and quantification. The recent advances in artificial intelligence and machine learning are shifting the research attention towards intelligent, data-driven, signal processing. This roadmap presents a critical overview of the state-of-the-art methods and applications aiming to highlight future challenges and research opportunities towards next generation measurement systems. It covers a broad spectrum of topics ranging from basic to industrial research, organized in concise thematic sections that reflect the trends and the impacts of current and future developments per research field. Furthermore, it offers guidance to researchers and funding agencies in identifying new prospects.
With the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and image scanning technology, Whole-slide Image (WSI) scanners are widely used in the field of pathological diagnosis. Therefore, WSI analysis has become the key to modern digital pathology. Since 2004, WSI has been used more and more in CAD. Since machine vision methods are usually based on semi-automatic or fully automatic computers, they are highly efficient and labor-saving. The combination of WSI and CAD technologies for segmentation, classification, and detection helps histopathologists obtain more stable and quantitative analysis results, save labor costs and improve diagnosis objectivity. This paper reviews the methods of WSI analysis based on machine learning. Firstly, the development status of WSI and CAD methods are introduced. Secondly, we discuss publicly available WSI datasets and evaluation metrics for segmentation, classification, and detection tasks. Then, the latest development of machine learning in WSI segmentation, classification, and detection are reviewed continuously. Finally, the existing methods are studied, the applicabilities of the analysis methods are analyzed, and the application prospects of the analysis methods in this field are forecasted.
Hyperdimensional computing (HDC) is a brain-inspired computing paradigm based on high-dimensional holistic representations of vectors. It recently gained attention for embedded smart sensing due to its inherent error-resiliency and suitability to highly parallel hardware implementations. In this work, we propose a programmable all-digital CMOS implementation of a fully autonomous HDC accelerator for always-on classification in energy-constrained sensor nodes. By using energy-efficient standard cell memory (SCM), the design is easily cross-technology mappable. It achieves extremely low power, 5 $\mu W$ in typical applications, and an energy-efficiency improvement over the state-of-the-art (SoA) digital architectures of up to 3$\times$ in post-layout simulations for always-on wearable tasks such as EMG gesture recognition. As part of the accelerator's architecture, we introduce novel hardware-friendly embodiments of common HDC-algorithmic primitives, which results in 3.3$\times$ technology scaled area reduction over the SoA, achieving the same accuracy levels in all examined targets. The proposed architecture also has a fully configurable datapath using microcode optimized for HDC stored on an integrated SCM based configuration memory, making the design "general-purpose" in terms of HDC algorithm flexibility. This flexibility allows usage of the accelerator across novel HDC tasks, for instance, a newly designed HDC applied to the task of ball bearing fault detection.