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Grad-TTS: A Diffusion Probabilistic Model for Text-to-Speech

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recently, denoising diffusion probabilistic models and generative score matching have shown high potential in modelling complex data distributions while stochastic calculus has provided a unified point of view on these techniques allowing for flexible inference schemes. In this paper we introduce Grad-TTS, a novel text-to-speech model with score-based decoder producing mel-spectrograms by gradually transforming noise predicted by encoder and aligned with text input by means of Monotonic Alignment Search. The framework of stochastic differential equations helps us to generalize conventional diffusion probabilistic models to the case of reconstructing data from noise with different parameters and allows to make this reconstruction flexible by explicitly controlling trade-off between sound quality and inference speed. Subjective human evaluation shows that Grad-TTS is competitive with state-of-the-art text-to-speech approaches in terms of Mean Opinion Score. We will make the code publicly available shortly.


Bayesian Logistic Shape Model Inference: application to cochlea image segmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Incorporating shape information is essential for the delineation of many organs and anatomical structures in medical images. While previous work has mainly focused on parametric spatial transformations applied on reference template shapes, in this paper, we address the Bayesian inference of parametric shape models for segmenting medical images with the objective to provide interpretable results. The proposed framework defines a likelihood appearance probability and a prior label probability based on a generic shape function through a logistic function. A reference length parameter defined in the sigmoid controls the trade-off between shape and appearance information. The inference of shape parameters is performed within an Expectation-Maximisation approach where a Gauss-Newton optimization stage allows to provide an approximation of the posterior probability of shape parameters. This framework is applied to the segmentation of cochlea structures from clinical CT images constrained by a 10 parameter shape model. It is evaluated on three different datasets, one of which includes more than 200 patient images. The results show performances comparable to supervised methods and better than previously proposed unsupervised ones. It also enables an analysis of parameter distributions and the quantification of segmentation uncertainty including the effect of the shape model.


Learning Triadic Belief Dynamics in Nonverbal Communication from Videos

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans possess a unique social cognition capability; nonverbal communication can convey rich social information among agents. In contrast, such crucial social characteristics are mostly missing in the existing scene understanding literature. In this paper, we incorporate different nonverbal communication cues (e.g., gaze, human poses, and gestures) to represent, model, learn, and infer agents' mental states from pure visual inputs. Crucially, such a mental representation takes the agent's belief into account so that it represents what the true world state is and infers the beliefs in each agent's mental state, which may differ from the true world states. By aggregating different beliefs and true world states, our model essentially forms "five minds" during the interactions between two agents. This "five minds" model differs from prior works that infer beliefs in an infinite recursion; instead, agents' beliefs are converged into a "common mind". Based on this representation, we further devise a hierarchical energy-based model that jointly tracks and predicts all five minds. From this new perspective, a social event is interpreted by a series of nonverbal communication and belief dynamics, which transcends the classic keyframe video summary. In the experiments, we demonstrate that using such a social account provides a better video summary on videos with rich social interactions compared with state-of-the-art keyframe video summary methods.


Temporal Memory Relation Network for Workflow Recognition from Surgical Video

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Automatic surgical workflow recognition is a key component for developing context-aware computer-assisted systems in the operating theatre. Previous works either jointly modeled the spatial features with short fixed-range temporal information, or separately learned visual and long temporal cues. In this paper, we propose a novel end-to-end temporal memory relation network (TMRNet) for relating long-range and multi-scale temporal patterns to augment the present features. We establish a long-range memory bank to serve as a memory cell storing the rich supportive information. Through our designed temporal variation layer, the supportive cues are further enhanced by multi-scale temporal-only convolutions. To effectively incorporate the two types of cues without disturbing the joint learning of spatio-temporal features, we introduce a non-local bank operator to attentively relate the past to the present. In this regard, our TMRNet enables the current feature to view the long-range temporal dependency, as well as tolerate complex temporal extents. We have extensively validated our approach on two benchmark surgical video datasets, M2CAI challenge dataset and Cholec80 dataset. Experimental results demonstrate the outstanding performance of our method, consistently exceeding the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin (e.g., 67.0% v.s. 78.9% Jaccard on Cholec80 dataset).


White Paper Machine Learning in Certified Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine Learning (ML) seems to be one of the most promising solution to automate partially or completely some of the complex tasks currently realized by humans, such as driving vehicles, recognizing voice, etc. It is also an opportunity to implement and embed new capabilities out of the reach of classical implementation techniques. However, ML techniques introduce new potential risks. Therefore, they have only been applied in systems where their benefits are considered worth the increase of risk. In practice, ML techniques raise multiple challenges that could prevent their use in systems submitted to certification constraints. But what are the actual challenges? Can they be overcome by selecting appropriate ML techniques, or by adopting new engineering or certification practices? These are some of the questions addressed by the ML Certification 3 Workgroup (WG) set-up by the Institut de Recherche Technologique Saint Exup\'ery de Toulouse (IRT), as part of the DEEL Project.


Interpretable Hyperspectral AI: When Non-Convex Modeling meets Hyperspectral Remote Sensing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hyperspectral imaging, also known as image spectrometry, is a landmark technique in geoscience and remote sensing (RS). In the past decade, enormous efforts have been made to process and analyze these hyperspectral (HS) products mainly by means of seasoned experts. However, with the ever-growing volume of data, the bulk of costs in manpower and material resources poses new challenges on reducing the burden of manual labor and improving efficiency. For this reason, it is, therefore, urgent to develop more intelligent and automatic approaches for various HS RS applications. Machine learning (ML) tools with convex optimization have successfully undertaken the tasks of numerous artificial intelligence (AI)-related applications. However, their ability in handling complex practical problems remains limited, particularly for HS data, due to the effects of various spectral variabilities in the process of HS imaging and the complexity and redundancy of higher dimensional HS signals. Compared to the convex models, non-convex modeling, which is capable of characterizing more complex real scenes and providing the model interpretability technically and theoretically, has been proven to be a feasible solution to reduce the gap between challenging HS vision tasks and currently advanced intelligent data processing models.


A Comprehensive Review of Computer-aided Whole-slide Image Analysis: from Datasets to Feature Extraction, Segmentation, Classification, and Detection Approaches

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the development of computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) and image scanning technology, Whole-slide Image (WSI) scanners are widely used in the field of pathological diagnosis. Therefore, WSI analysis has become the key to modern digital pathology. Since 2004, WSI has been used more and more in CAD. Since machine vision methods are usually based on semi-automatic or fully automatic computers, they are highly efficient and labor-saving. The combination of WSI and CAD technologies for segmentation, classification, and detection helps histopathologists obtain more stable and quantitative analysis results, save labor costs and improve diagnosis objectivity. This paper reviews the methods of WSI analysis based on machine learning. Firstly, the development status of WSI and CAD methods are introduced. Secondly, we discuss publicly available WSI datasets and evaluation metrics for segmentation, classification, and detection tasks. Then, the latest development of machine learning in WSI segmentation, classification, and detection are reviewed continuously. Finally, the existing methods are studied, the applicabilities of the analysis methods are analyzed, and the application prospects of the analysis methods in this field are forecasted.


Trends in Vehicle Re-identification Past, Present, and Future: A Comprehensive Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Vehicle Re-identification (re-id) over surveillance camera network with non-overlapping field of view is an exciting and challenging task in intelligent transportation systems (ITS). Due to its versatile applicability in metropolitan cities, it gained significant attention. Vehicle re-id matches targeted vehicle over non-overlapping views in multiple camera network. However, it becomes more difficult due to inter-class similarity, intra-class variability, viewpoint changes, and spatio-temporal uncertainty. In order to draw a detailed picture of vehicle re-id research, this paper gives a comprehensive description of the various vehicle re-id technologies, applicability, datasets, and a brief comparison of different methodologies. Our paper specifically focuses on vision-based vehicle re-id approaches, including vehicle appearance, license plate, and spatio-temporal characteristics. In addition, we explore the main challenges as well as a variety of applications in different domains. Lastly, a detailed comparison of current state-of-the-art methods performances over VeRi-776 and VehicleID datasets is summarized with future directions. We aim to facilitate future research by reviewing the work being done on vehicle re-id till to date.


From a Point Cloud to a Simulation Model: Bayesian Segmentation and Entropy based Uncertainty Estimation for 3D Modelling

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The 3D modelling of indoor environments and the generation of process simulations play an important role in factory and assembly planning. In brownfield planning cases existing data are often outdated and incomplete especially for older plants, which were mostly planned in 2D. Thus, current environment models cannot be generated directly on the basis of existing data and a holistic approach on how to build such a factory model in a highly automated fashion is mostly non-existent. Major steps in generating an environment model in a production plant include data collection and pre-processing, object identification as well as pose estimation. In this work, we elaborate a methodical workflow, which starts with the digitalization of large-scale indoor environments and ends with the generation of a static environment or simulation model. The object identification step is realized using a Bayesian neural network capable of point cloud segmentation. We elaborate how the information on network uncertainty generated by a Bayesian segmentation framework can be used in order to build up a more accurate environment model. The steps of data collection and point cloud segmentation as well as the resulting model accuracy are evaluated on a real-world data set collected at the assembly line of a large-scale automotive production plant. The segmentation network is further evaluated on the publicly available Stanford Large-Scale 3D Indoor Spaces data set. The Bayesian segmentation network clearly surpasses the performance of the frequentist baseline and allows us to increase the accuracy of the model placement in a simulation scene considerably.


Estimating and Evaluating Regression Predictive Uncertainty in Deep Object Detectors

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Predictive uncertainty estimation is an essential next step for the reliable deployment of deep object detectors in safety-critical tasks. In this work, we focus on estimating predictive distributions for bounding box regression output with variance networks. We show that in the context of object detection, training variance networks with negative log likelihood (NLL) can lead to high entropy predictive distributions regardless of the correctness of the output mean. We propose to use the energy score as a non-local proper scoring rule and find that when used for training, the energy score leads to better calibrated and lower entropy predictive distributions than NLL. We also address the widespread use of non-proper scoring metrics for evaluating predictive distributions from deep object detectors by proposing an alternate evaluation approach founded on proper scoring rules. Using the proposed evaluation tools, we show that although variance networks can be used to produce high quality predictive distributions, adhoc approaches used by seminal object detectors for choosing regression targets during training do not provide wide enough data support for reliable variance learning. We hope that our work helps shift evaluation in probabilistic object detection to better align with predictive uncertainty evaluation in other machine learning domains. Deep object detectors are being increasingly deployed as perception components in safety critical robotics and automation applications. For reliable and safe operation, subsequent tasks using detectors as sensors require meaningful predictive uncertainty estimates correlated with their outputs. As an example, overconfident incorrect predictions can lead to non-optimal decision making in planning tasks, while underconfident correct predictions can lead to under-utilizing information in sensor fusion. This paper investigates probabilistic object detectors, extensions of standard object detectors that estimate predictive distributions for output categories and bounding boxes simultaneously. This paper aims to identify the shortcomings of recent trends followed by state-of-the-art probabilistic object detectors, and proposes to provide theoretically founded solutions for identified issues.