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DeHIN: A Decentralized Framework for Embedding Large-scale Heterogeneous Information Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Modeling heterogeneity by extraction and exploitation of high-order information from heterogeneous information networks (HINs) has been attracting immense research attention in recent times. Such heterogeneous network embedding (HNE) methods effectively harness the heterogeneity of small-scale HINs. However, in the real world, the size of HINs grow exponentially with the continuous introduction of new nodes and different types of links, making it a billion-scale network. Learning node embeddings on such HINs creates a performance bottleneck for existing HNE methods that are commonly centralized, i.e., complete data and the model are both on a single machine. To address large-scale HNE tasks with strong efficiency and effectiveness guarantee, we present \textit{Decentralized Embedding Framework for Heterogeneous Information Network} (DeHIN) in this paper. In DeHIN, we generate a distributed parallel pipeline that utilizes hypergraphs in order to infuse parallelization into the HNE task. DeHIN presents a context preserving partition mechanism that innovatively formulates a large HIN as a hypergraph, whose hyperedges connect semantically similar nodes. Our framework then adopts a decentralized strategy to efficiently partition HINs by adopting a tree-like pipeline. Then, each resulting subnetwork is assigned to a distributed worker, which employs the deep information maximization theorem to locally learn node embeddings from the partition it receives. We further devise a novel embedding alignment scheme to precisely project independently learned node embeddings from all subnetworks onto a common vector space, thus allowing for downstream tasks like link prediction and node classification.


Network representation learning: A macro and micro view

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Graph is a universe data structure that is widely used to organize data in real-world. Various real-word networks like the transportation network, social and academic network can be represented by graphs. Recent years have witnessed the quick development on representing vertices in the network into a low-dimensional vector space, referred to as network representation learning. Representation learning can facilitate the design of new algorithms on the graph data. In this survey, we conduct a comprehensive review of current literature on network representation learning. Existing algorithms can be categorized into three groups: shallow embedding models, heterogeneous network embedding models, graph neural network based models. We review state-of-the-art algorithms for each category and discuss the essential differences between these algorithms. One advantage of the survey is that we systematically study the underlying theoretical foundations underlying the different categories of algorithms, which offers deep insights for better understanding the development of the network representation learning field.


Pairwise Margin Maximization for Deep Neural Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The weight decay regularization term is widely used during training to constrain expressivity, avoid overfitting, and improve generalization. Historically, this concept was borrowed from the SVM maximum margin principle and extended to multi-class deep networks. Carefully inspecting this principle reveals that it is not optimal for multi-class classification in general, and in particular when using deep neural networks. In this paper, we explain why this commonly used principle is not optimal and propose a new regularization scheme, called {\em Pairwise Margin Maximization} (PMM), which measures the minimal amount of displacement an instance should take until its predicted classification is switched. In deep neural networks, PMM can be implemented in the vector space before the network's output layer, i.e., in the deep feature space, where we add an additional normalization term to avoid convergence to a trivial solution. We demonstrate empirically a substantial improvement when training a deep neural network with PMM compared to the standard regularization terms.


Turing approximations, toric isometric embeddings & manifold convolutions

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Convolutions are fundamental elements in deep learning architectures. Here, we present a theoretical framework for combining extrinsic and intrinsic approaches to manifold convolution through isometric embeddings into tori. In this way, we define a convolution operator for a manifold of arbitrary topology and dimension. We also explain geometric and topological conditions that make some local definitions of convolutions which rely on translating filters along geodesic paths on a manifold, computationally intractable. A result of Alan Turing from 1938 underscores the need for such a toric isometric embedding approach to achieve a global definition of convolution on computable, finite metric space approximations to a smooth manifold.


Permute Me Softly: Learning Soft Permutations for Graph Representations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Graph neural networks (GNNs) have recently emerged as a dominant paradigm for machine learning with graphs. Research on GNNs has mainly focused on the family of message passing neural networks (MPNNs). Similar to the Weisfeiler-Leman (WL) test of isomorphism, these models follow an iterative neighborhood aggregation procedure to update vertex representations, and they next compute graph representations by aggregating the representations of the vertices. Although very successful, MPNNs have been studied intensively in the past few years. Thus, there is a need for novel architectures which will allow research in the field to break away from MPNNs. In this paper, we propose a new graph neural network model, so-called $\pi$-GNN which learns a "soft" permutation (i.e., doubly stochastic) matrix for each graph, and thus projects all graphs into a common vector space. The learned matrices impose a "soft" ordering on the vertices of the input graphs, and based on this ordering, the adjacency matrices are mapped into vectors. These vectors can be fed into fully-connected or convolutional layers to deal with supervised learning tasks. In case of large graphs, to make the model more efficient in terms of running time and memory, we further relax the doubly stochastic matrices to row stochastic matrices. We empirically evaluate the model on graph classification and graph regression datasets and show that it achieves performance competitive with state-of-the-art models.


How to Use Arabic Word2Vec Word Embedding with LSTM

#artificialintelligence

Word embedding is the approach of learning word and their relative meanings from a corpus of text and representing the word as a dense vector. The word vector is the projection of the word into a continuous feature vector space, see Figure 1 (A) for clarity. Words that have similar meaning should be close together in the vector space as illustrated in see Figure 1 (B). Word2vec is one of the most popular words embedding in NLP. Word2vec has two types, Continuous Bag-of-Words Model (CBOW) and Continuous Skip-gram Model [3], the model architectures are shown in Figure 2. CBOW predicts the word according to the given context, where Skip-gram predicts the context according to the given word, which increases the computational complexity [3].


DAMSL: Domain Agnostic Meta Score-based Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we propose Domain Agnostic Meta Score-based Learning (DAMSL), a novel, versatile and highly effective solution that delivers significant out-performance over state-of-the-art methods for cross-domain few-shot learning. We identify key problems in previous meta-learning methods over-fitting to the source domain, and previous transfer-learning methods under-utilizing the structure of the support set. The core idea behind our method is that instead of directly using the scores from a fine-tuned feature encoder, we use these scores to create input coordinates for a domain agnostic metric space. A graph neural network is applied to learn an embedding and relation function over these coordinates to process all information contained in the score distribution of the support set. We test our model on both established CD-FSL benchmarks and new domains and show that our method overcomes the limitations of previous meta-learning and transfer-learning methods to deliver substantial improvements in accuracy across both smaller and larger domain shifts.


Statistical embedding: Beyond principal components

arXiv.org Machine Learning

There has been an intense recent activity in embedding of very high dimensional and nonlinear data structures, much of it in the data science and machine learning literature. We survey this activity in four parts. In the first part we cover nonlinear methods such as principal curves, multidimensional scaling, local linear methods, ISOMAP, graph based methods and kernel based methods. The second part is concerned with topological embedding methods, in particular mapping topological properties into persistence diagrams. Another type of data sets with a tremendous growth is very high-dimensional network data. The task considered in part three is how to embed such data in a vector space of moderate dimension to make the data amenable to traditional techniques such as cluster and classification techniques. The final part of the survey deals with embedding in $\mathbb{R}^2$, which is visualization. Three methods are presented: $t$-SNE, UMAP and LargeVis based on methods in parts one, two and three, respectively. The methods are illustrated and compared on two simulated data sets; one consisting of a triple of noisy Ranunculoid curves, and one consisting of networks of increasing complexity and with two types of nodes.


NEMR: Network Embedding on Metric of Relation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Network embedding maps the nodes of a given network into a low-dimensional space such that the semantic similarities among the nodes can be effectively inferred. Most existing approaches use inner-product of node embedding to measure the similarity between nodes leading to the fact that they lack the capacity to capture complex relationships among nodes. Besides, they take the path in the network just as structural auxiliary information when inferring node embeddings, while paths in the network are formed with rich user informations which are semantically relevant and cannot be ignored. In this paper, We propose a novel method called Network Embedding on the Metric of Relation, abbreviated as NEMR, which can learn the embeddings of nodes in a relational metric space efficiently. First, our NEMR models the relationships among nodes in a metric space with deep learning methods including variational inference that maps the relationship of nodes to a gaussian distribution so as to capture the uncertainties. Secondly, our NEMR considers not only the equivalence of multiple-paths but also the natural order of a single-path when inferring embeddings of nodes, which makes NEMR can capture the multiple relationships among nodes since multiple paths contain rich user information, e.g., age, hobby and profession. Experimental results on several public datasets show that the NEMR outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on relevant inference tasks including link prediction and node classification.


Deep Parametric Continuous Convolutional Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Standard convolutional neural networks assume a grid structured input is available and exploit discrete convolutions as their fundamental building blocks. This limits their applicability to many real-world applications. In this paper we propose Parametric Continuous Convolution, a new learnable operator that operates over non-grid structured data. The key idea is to exploit parameterized kernel functions that span the full continuous vector space. This generalization allows us to learn over arbitrary data structures as long as their support relationship is computable. Our experiments show significant improvement over the state-of-the-art in point cloud segmentation of indoor and outdoor scenes, and lidar motion estimation of driving scenes.