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Complete Machine Learning & Data Science Bootcamp 2022

#artificialintelligence

This is a brand new Machine Learning and Data Science course just launched and updated this month with the latest trends and skills for 2021! Become a complete Data Scientist and Machine Learning engineer! Join a live online community of 400,000 engineers and a course taught by industry experts that have actually worked for large companies in places like Silicon Valley and Toronto. Graduates of Andrei's courses are now working at Google, Tesla, Amazon, Apple, IBM, JP Morgan, Facebook, other top tech companies. You will go from zero to mastery!


9 Best Machine Learning, AI, and Data Science Internships in 2022

#artificialintelligence

Internships are a great way to get hands-on, practical experience in the fields of Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Data Science. Those looking for internships in these, and related fields, should explore the options below. Be sure to note requirements–some internships have minimum lengths and only accept those pursuing higher educational degrees while others offer rolling acceptance for a range of experiences and backgrounds. All of them, however, will provide interns an opportunity to apply their theoretical and practical skills to real word, tangible scenarios. Facebook's Meta is hiring for a group of data science interns interested in learning more about using Data Science for more effective advertising, marketing, and sales applications.


Top resources to learn reinforcement learning in 2022

#artificialintelligence

Rich S. Sutton, a research scientist at DeepMind and computing science professor at the University of Alberta, explains the underlying formal problem like the Markov decision processes, core solution methods, dynamic programming, Monte Carlo methods, and temporal-difference learning in this in-depth tutorial.


AI language processing startup Cohere raises US$125 million: The Globe and Mail

#artificialintelligence

Cohere Inc., an AI startup founded by University of Toronto alumni that uses natural language processing to improve human-machine interactions, has raised US$125 million as it looks to open a new office in Silicon Valley, the Globe and Mail reports. The latest financing round, led by New York-based Tiger Global Management, comes only five months after Cohere secured $US40 million in venture capital financing, according to the Globe. Cohere's software platform helps companies infuse natural language processing capabilities into their business using tools like chatbots, without requiring AI expertise of their own. The company originated in a 2017 paper co-authored by CEO Aidan Gomez, who interned at the Google Brain lab of deep learning pioneer and University Professor Emeritus Geoffrey Hinton, a Cohere investor. Cohere's other co-founders are alumnus Nick Frosst, who also worked with Hinton at Google, and Ivan Zhang, a former U of T computer science student.


State of AI Ethics Report (Volume 6, February 2022)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This report from the Montreal AI Ethics Institute (MAIEI) covers the most salient progress in research and reporting over the second half of 2021 in the field of AI ethics. Particular emphasis is placed on an "Analysis of the AI Ecosystem", "Privacy", "Bias", "Social Media and Problematic Information", "AI Design and Governance", "Laws and Regulations", "Trends", and other areas covered in the "Outside the Boxes" section. The two AI spotlights feature application pieces on "Constructing and Deconstructing Gender with AI-Generated Art" as well as "Will an Artificial Intellichef be Cooking Your Next Meal at a Michelin Star Restaurant?". Given MAIEI's mission to democratize AI, submissions from external collaborators have featured, such as pieces on the "Challenges of AI Development in Vietnam: Funding, Talent and Ethics" and using "Representation and Imagination for Preventing AI Harms". The report is a comprehensive overview of what the key issues in the field of AI ethics were in 2021, what trends are emergent, what gaps exist, and a peek into what to expect from the field of AI ethics in 2022. It is a resource for researchers and practitioners alike in the field to set their research and development agendas to make contributions to the field of AI ethics.


Investigating Power laws in Deep Representation Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Representation learning that leverages large-scale labelled datasets, is central to recent progress in machine learning. Access to task relevant labels at scale is often scarce or expensive, motivating the need to learn from unlabelled datasets with self-supervised learning (SSL). Such large unlabelled datasets (with data augmentations) often provide a good coverage of the underlying input distribution. However evaluating the representations learned by SSL algorithms still requires task-specific labelled samples in the training pipeline. Additionally, the generalization of task-specific encoding is often sensitive to potential distribution shift. Inspired by recent advances in theoretical machine learning and vision neuroscience, we observe that the eigenspectrum of the empirical feature covariance matrix often follows a power law. For visual representations, we estimate the coefficient of the power law, $\alpha$, across three key attributes which influence representation learning: learning objective (supervised, SimCLR, Barlow Twins and BYOL), network architecture (VGG, ResNet and Vision Transformer), and tasks (object and scene recognition). We observe that under mild conditions, proximity of $\alpha$ to 1, is strongly correlated to the downstream generalization performance. Furthermore, $\alpha \approx 1$ is a strong indicator of robustness to label noise during fine-tuning. Notably, $\alpha$ is computable from the representations without knowledge of any labels, thereby offering a framework to evaluate the quality of representations in unlabelled datasets.


Latent gaze information in highly dynamic decision-tasks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Digitization is penetrating more and more areas of life. Tasks are increasingly being completed digitally, and are therefore not only fulfilled faster, more efficiently but also more purposefully and successfully. The rapid developments in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years have played a major role in this, as they brought up many helpful approaches to build on. At the same time, the eyes, their movements, and the meaning of these movements are being progressively researched. The combination of these developments has led to exciting approaches. In this dissertation, I present some of these approaches which I worked on during my Ph.D. First, I provide insight into the development of models that use artificial intelligence to connect eye movements with visual expertise. This is demonstrated for two domains or rather groups of people: athletes in decision-making actions and surgeons in arthroscopic procedures. The resulting models can be considered as digital diagnostic models for automatic expertise recognition. Furthermore, I show approaches that investigate the transferability of eye movement patterns to different expertise domains and subsequently, important aspects of techniques for generalization. Finally, I address the temporal detection of confusion based on eye movement data. The results suggest the use of the resulting model as a clock signal for possible digital assistance options in the training of young professionals. An interesting aspect of my research is that I was able to draw on very valuable data from DFB youth elite athletes as well as on long-standing experts in arthroscopy. In particular, the work with the DFB data attracted the interest of radio and print media, namely DeutschlandFunk Nova and SWR DasDing. All resulting articles presented here have been published in internationally renowned journals or at conferences.


NUQ: Nonparametric Uncertainty Quantification for Deterministic Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

This paper proposes a fast and scalable method for uncertainty quantification of machine learning models' predictions. First, we show the principled way to measure the uncertainty of predictions for a classifier based on Nadaraya-Watson's nonparametric estimate of the conditional label distribution. Importantly, the approach allows to disentangle explicitly aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties. The resulting method works directly in the feature space. However, one can apply it to any neural network by considering an embedding of the data induced by the network. We demonstrate the strong performance of the method in uncertainty estimation tasks on a variety of real-world image datasets, such as MNIST, SVHN, CIFAR-100 and several versions of ImageNet.


Non-Vacuous Generalisation Bounds for Shallow Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The study of generalisation properties of deep neural networks is arguably one of the topics gaining most traction in deep learning theory (see, e.g., the recent surveys Kawaguchi et al., 2020; Jiang et al., 2020b). In particular, a characterisation of out-of-sample generalisation is essential to understand where trained neural networks are likely to succeed or to fail, as evidenced by the recent NeurIPS 2020 competition "Predicting Generalization in Deep Learning" (Jiang et al., 2020a). One stream of this joint effort, which the present paper contributes to, is dedicated to the study of shallow neural networks, potentially paving the way to insights on deeper architectures.


Towards Training Reproducible Deep Learning Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Reproducibility is an increasing concern in Artificial Intelligence (AI), particularly in the area of Deep Learning (DL). Being able to reproduce DL models is crucial for AI-based systems, as it is closely tied to various tasks like training, testing, debugging, and auditing. However, DL models are challenging to be reproduced due to issues like randomness in the software (e.g., DL algorithms) and non-determinism in the hardware (e.g., GPU). There are various practices to mitigate some of the aforementioned issues. However, many of them are either too intrusive or can only work for a specific usage context. In this paper, we propose a systematic approach to training reproducible DL models. Our approach includes three main parts: (1) a set of general criteria to thoroughly evaluate the reproducibility of DL models for two different domains, (2) a unified framework which leverages a record-and-replay technique to mitigate software-related randomness and a profile-and-patch technique to control hardware-related non-determinism, and (3) a reproducibility guideline which explains the rationales and the mitigation strategies on conducting a reproducible training process for DL models. Case study results show our approach can successfully reproduce six open source and one commercial DL models.