In a world filled with technology and artificial intelligence, it is becoming increasingly harder to distinguish between what is real and what is fake. Look at these two pictures below. Can you tell which one is a real-life photograph and which one is created by artificial intelligence? The crazy thing is that both of these images are actually fake, created by NVIDIA's new hyperrealistic face generator, which uses an algorithmic architecture called a generative adversarial network (GANs). Researching more into GANs and their applications in today's society, I found that they can be used everywhere, from text to image generation to even predicting the next frame in a video!
Having been collected for its primary purpose in patient care, Observational Health Data (OHD) can further benefit patient well-being by sustaining the development of health informatics. However, the potential for secondary usage of OHD continues to be hampered by the fiercely private nature of patient-related data. Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have recently emerged as a groundbreaking approach to efficiently learn generative models that produce realistic Synthetic Data (SD). However, the application of GAN to OHD seems to have been lagging in comparison to other fields. We conducted a review of GAN algorithms for OHD in the published literature, and report our findings here.
This paper provides a systematic and comprehensive survey that reviews the latest research efforts focused on machine learning (ML) based performance improvement of wireless networks, while considering all layers of the protocol stack (PHY, MAC and network). First, the related work and paper contributions are discussed, followed by providing the necessary background on data-driven approaches and machine learning for non-machine learning experts to understand all discussed techniques. Then, a comprehensive review is presented on works employing ML-based approaches to optimize the wireless communication parameters settings to achieve improved network quality-of-service (QoS) and quality-of-experience (QoE). We first categorize these works into: radio analysis, MAC analysis and network prediction approaches, followed by subcategories within each. Finally, open challenges and broader perspectives are discussed.
Nighttime satellite imagery has been applied in a wide range of fields. However, our limited understanding of how observed light intensity is formed and whether it can be simulated greatly hinders its further application. This study explores the potential of conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (cGAN) in translating multispectral imagery to nighttime imagery. A popular cGAN framework, pix2pix, was adopted and modified to facilitate this translation using gridded training image pairs derived from Landsat 8 and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The results of this study prove the possibility of multispectral-to-nighttime translation and further indicate that, with the additional social media data, the generated nighttime imagery can be very similar to the ground-truth imagery. This study fills the gap in understanding the composition of satellite observed nighttime light and provides new paradigms to solve the emerging problems in nighttime remote sensing fields, including nighttime series construction, light desaturation, and multi-sensor calibration.
Generative adversarial networks (GANs) have shown promise in image generation and classification given limited supervision. Existing methods extend the unsupervised GAN framework to incorporate supervision heuristically. Specifically, a single discriminator plays two incompatible roles of identifying fake samples and predicting labels and it only estimates the data without considering the labels. The formulation intrinsically causes two problems: (1) the generator and the discriminator (i.e., the classifier) may not converge to the data distribution at the same time; and (2) the generator cannot control the semantics of the generated samples. In this paper, we present the triple generative adversarial network (Triple-GAN), which consists of three players---a generator, a classifier, and a discriminator. The generator and the classifier characterize the conditional distributions between images and labels, and the discriminator solely focuses on identifying fake image-label pairs. We design compatible objective functions to ensure that the distributions characterized by the generator and the classifier converge to the data distribution. We evaluate Triple-GAN in two challenging settings, namely, semi-supervised learning and the extreme low data regime. In both settings, Triple-GAN can achieve state-of-the-art classification results among deep generative models and generate meaningful samples in a specific class simultaneously.
--Existing algorithms aiming to learn a binary classifier from positive (P) and unlabeled (U) data require estimating the class prior or label noise ahead of building a classification model. However, the estimation and classifier learning are normally conducted in a pipeline instead of being jointly optimized. In this paper, we propose to alternatively train the two steps using reinforcement learning. Our proposal adopts a policy network to adaptively make assumptions on the labels of unlabeled data, while a classifier is built upon the output of the policy network and provides rewards to learn a better policy. The dynamic and interactive training between the policy maker and the classifier can exploit the unlabeled data in a more effective manner and yield a significant improvement in terms of classification performance. Furthermore, we present two different approaches to represent the actions taken by the policy. The first approach considers continuous actions as soft labels, while the other uses discrete actions as hard assignment of labels for unlabeled examples. We validate the effectiveness of the proposed method on two public benchmark datasets as well as one e-commerce dataset. The results show that the proposed method is able to consistently outperform state-of-the-art methods in various settings. PU learning refers to the problem of learning from a dataset where only a subset of examples are positively labeled and the rest are not annotated at all. It is a critical task due to its prevalence in various real-world applications , , . In many common situations only positive data are available, for instance, an e-commerce website may only record users who have clicked on advertisements or purchased items. Meanwhile, it is not possible to simply assume that unlabeled instances are negative.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) have gained a lot of popularity from their introduction in 2014 till present. Research on GAN is rapidly growing and there are many variants of the original GAN focusing on various aspects of deep learning. GAN are perceived as the most impactful direction of machine learning in the last decade. This paper focuses on the application of GAN in autonomous driving including topics such as advanced data augmentation, loss function learning, semi-supervised learning, etc. We formalize and review key applications of adversarial techniques and discuss challenges and open problems to be addressed.
Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) are a relatively new concept in Machine Learning, introduced for the first time in 2014. Their goal is to synthesize artificial samples, such as images, that are indistinguishable from authentic images. A common example of a GAN application is to generate artificial face images by learning from a dataset of celebrity faces. While GAN images became more realistic over time, one of their main challenges is controlling their output, i.e. changing specific features such pose, face shape and hair style in an image of a face. A new paper by NVIDIA, A Style-Based Generator Architecture for GANs (StyleGAN), presents a novel model which addresses this challenge.
Developments in artificial intelligence move at a startling pace -- so much so that it's often difficult to keep track. But one area where progress is as plain as the nose on your AI-generated face is the use of neural networks to create fake images. In the image above you can see what four years of progress in AI image generation looks like. The crude black-and-white faces on the left are from 2014, published as part of a landmark paper that introduced the AI tool known as the generative adversarial network (GAN). The color faces on the right come from a paper published earlier this month, which uses the same basic method but is clearly a world apart in terms of image quality.