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Semi-Supervised Learning of Visual Features by Non-Parametrically Predicting View Assignments with Support Samples

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a novel method of learning by predicting view assignments with support samples (PAWS). The method trains a model to minimize a consistency loss, which ensures that different views of the same unlabeled instance are assigned similar pseudo-labels. The pseudo-labels are generated non-parametrically, by comparing the representations of the image views to those of a set of randomly sampled labeled images. The distance between the view representations and labeled representations is used to provide a weighting over class labels, which we interpret as a soft pseudo-label. By non-parametrically incorporating labeled samples in this way, PAWS extends the distance-metric loss used in self-supervised methods such as BYOL and SwAV to the semi-supervised setting. Despite the simplicity of the approach, PAWS outperforms other semi-supervised methods across architectures, setting a new state-of-the-art for a ResNet-50 on ImageNet trained with either 10% or 1% of the labels, reaching 75.5% and 66.5% top-1 respectively. PAWS requires 4x to 12x less training than the previous best methods.


Streaming Self-Training via Domain-Agnostic Unlabeled Images

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present streaming self-training (SST) that aims to democratize the process of learning visual recognition models such that a non-expert user can define a new task depending on their needs via a few labeled examples and minimal domain knowledge. Key to SST are two crucial observations: (1) domain-agnostic unlabeled images enable us to learn better models with a few labeled examples without any additional knowledge or supervision; and (2) learning is a continuous process and can be done by constructing a schedule of learning updates that iterates between pre-training on novel segments of the streams of unlabeled data, and fine-tuning on the small and fixed labeled dataset. This allows SST to overcome the need for a large number of domain-specific labeled and unlabeled examples, exorbitant computational resources, and domain/task-specific knowledge. In this setting, classical semi-supervised approaches require a large amount of domain-specific labeled and unlabeled examples, immense resources to process data, and expert knowledge of a particular task. Due to these reasons, semi-supervised learning has been restricted to a few places that can house required computational and human resources. In this work, we overcome these challenges and demonstrate our findings for a wide range of visual recognition tasks including fine-grained image classification, surface normal estimation, and semantic segmentation. We also demonstrate our findings for diverse domains including medical, satellite, and agricultural imagery, where there does not exist a large amount of labeled or unlabeled data.


Multiview Pseudo-Labeling for Semi-supervised Learning from Video

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a multiview pseudo-labeling approach to video learning, a novel framework that uses complementary views in the form of appearance and motion information for semi-supervised learning in video. The complementary views help obtain more reliable pseudo-labels on unlabeled video, to learn stronger video representations than from purely supervised data. Though our method capitalizes on multiple views, it nonetheless trains a model that is shared across appearance and motion input and thus, by design, incurs no additional computation overhead at inference time. On multiple video recognition datasets, our method substantially outperforms its supervised counterpart, and compares favorably to previous work on standard benchmarks in self-supervised video representation learning.


Industry Scale Semi-Supervised Learning for Natural Language Understanding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents a production Semi-Supervised Learning (SSL) pipeline based on the student-teacher framework, which leverages millions of unlabeled examples to improve Natural Language Understanding (NLU) tasks. We investigate two questions related to the use of unlabeled data in production SSL context: 1) how to select samples from a huge unlabeled data pool that are beneficial for SSL training, and 2) how do the selected data affect the performance of different state-of-the-art SSL techniques. We compare four widely used SSL techniques, Pseudo-Label (PL), Knowledge Distillation (KD), Virtual Adversarial Training (VAT) and Cross-View Training (CVT) in conjunction with two data selection methods including committee-based selection and submodular optimization based selection. We further examine the benefits and drawbacks of these techniques when applied to intent classification (IC) and named entity recognition (NER) tasks, and provide guidelines specifying when each of these methods might be beneficial to improve large scale NLU systems.


Incremental Semi-Supervised Learning Through Optimal Transport

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Semi-supervised learning provides an effective paradigm for leveraging unlabeled data to improve a model\s performance. Among the many strategies proposed, graph-based methods have shown excellent properties, in particular since they allow to solve directly the transductive tasks according to Vapnik\s principle and they can be extended efficiently for inductive tasks. In this paper, we propose a novel approach for the transductive semi-supervised learning, using a complete bipartite edge-weighted graph. The proposed approach uses the regularized optimal transport between empirical measures defined on labelled and unlabelled data points in order to obtain an affinity matrix from the optimal transport plan. This matrix is further used to propagate labels through the vertices of the graph in an incremental process ensuring the certainty of the predictions by incorporating a certainty score based on Shannon\s entropy. We also analyze the convergence of our approach and we derive an efficient way to extend it for out-of-sample data. Experimental analysis was used to compare the proposed approach with other label propagation algorithms on 12 benchmark datasets, for which we surpass state-of-the-art results. We release our code.


Exponential Moving Average Normalization for Self-supervised and Semi-supervised Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We present a plug-in replacement for batch normalization (BN) called exponential moving average normalization (EMAN), which improves the performance of existing student-teacher based self- and semi-supervised learning techniques. Unlike the standard BN, where the statistics are computed within each batch, EMAN, used in the teacher, updates its statistics by exponential moving average from the BN statistics of the student. This design reduces the intrinsic cross-sample dependency of BN and enhance the generalization of the teacher. EMAN improves strong baselines for self-supervised learning by 4-6/1-2 points and semi-supervised learning by about 7/2 points, when 1%/10% supervised labels are available on ImageNet. These improvements are consistent across methods, network architectures, training duration, and datasets, demonstrating the general effectiveness of this technique.


Not All Unlabeled Data are Equal: Learning to Weight Data in Semi-supervised Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Existing semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms use a single weight to balance the loss of labeled and unlabeled examples, i.e., all unlabeled examples are equally weighted. But not all unlabeled data are equal. In this paper we study how to use a different weight for every unlabeled example. Manual tuning of all those weights -- as done in prior work -- is no longer possible. Instead, we adjust those weights via an algorithm based on the influence function, a measure of a model's dependency on one training example. To make the approach efficient, we propose a fast and effective approximation of the influence function. We demonstrate that this technique outperforms state-of-the-art methods on semi-supervised image and language classification tasks.


Big Self-Supervised Models are Strong Semi-Supervised Learners

arXiv.org Machine Learning

One paradigm for learning from few labeled examples while making best use of a large amount of unlabeled data is unsupervised pretraining followed by supervised fine-tuning. Although this paradigm uses unlabeled data in a task-agnostic way, in contrast to common approaches to semi-supervised learning for computer vision, we show that it is surprisingly effective for semi-supervised learning on ImageNet. A key ingredient of our approach is the use of big (deep and wide) networks during pretraining and fine-tuning. We find that, the fewer the labels, the more this approach (task-agnostic use of unlabeled data) benefits from a bigger network. After fine-tuning, the big network can be further improved and distilled into a much smaller one with little loss in classification accuracy by using the unlabeled examples for a second time, but in a task-specific way. The proposed semi-supervised learning algorithm can be summarized in three steps: unsupervised pretraining of a big ResNet model using SimCLRv2, supervised fine-tuning on a few labeled examples, and distillation with unlabeled examples for refining and transferring the task-specific knowledge. This procedure achieves 73.9% ImageNet top-1 accuracy with just 1% of the labels ($\le$13 labeled images per class) using ResNet-50, a $10\times$ improvement in label efficiency over the previous state-of-the-art. With 10% of labels, ResNet-50 trained with our method achieves 77.5% top-1 accuracy, outperforming standard supervised training with all of the labels.


Online Semi-Supervised Learning with Bandit Feedback

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We formulate a new problem at the intersectionof semi-supervised learning and contextual bandits,motivated by several applications including clini-cal trials and ad recommendations. We demonstratehow Graph Convolutional Network (GCN), a semi-supervised learning approach, can be adjusted tothe new problem formulation. We also propose avariant of the linear contextual bandit with semi-supervised missing rewards imputation. We thentake the best of both approaches to develop multi-GCN embedded contextual bandit. Our algorithmsare verified on several real world datasets.


Rethinking the Value of Labels for Improving Class-Imbalanced Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Real-world data often exhibits long-tailed distributions with heavy class imbalance, posing great challenges for deep recognition models. We identify a persisting dilemma on the value of labels in the context of imbalanced learning: on the one hand, supervision from labels typically leads to better results than its unsupervised counterparts; on the other hand, heavily imbalanced data naturally incurs "label bias" in the classifier, where the decision boundary can be drastically altered by the majority classes. In this work, we systematically investigate these two facets of labels. We demonstrate, theoretically and empirically, that class-imbalanced learning can significantly benefit in both semi-supervised and self-supervised manners. Specifically, we confirm that (1) positively, imbalanced labels are valuable: given more unlabeled data, the original labels can be leveraged with the extra data to reduce label bias in a semi-supervised manner, which greatly improves the final classifier; (2) negatively however, we argue that imbalanced labels are not useful always: classifiers that are first pre-trained in a self-supervised manner consistently outperform their corresponding baselines. Extensive experiments on large-scale imbalanced datasets verify our theoretically grounded strategies, showing superior performance over previous state-of-the-arts. Our intriguing findings highlight the need to rethink the usage of imbalanced labels in realistic long-tailed tasks. Code is available at https://github.com/YyzHarry/imbalanced-semi-self.