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AI is 'Better Than' Humans and That is Ok

#artificialintelligence

Remember in 2017, Elon Musk said that artificial intelligence would replace humanity in the next five years? While working on artificial intelligence for Tesla cars, he concluded that society had approached the moment when artificial intelligence could become significantly smarter than people. "People should not underestimate the power of the computer,'' Musk said. "This is pride and an obvious mistake." He must know what he's talking about, being one of the early investors of DeepMind, a Google subsidiary that developed an AI that could beat humans at Go and chess. AI is really good at many "human" tasks -- diagnosing diseases, translating languages, and serving customers.


Reimagining Chess with AlphaZero

Communications of the ACM

Modern chess is the culmination of centuries of experience, as well as an evolutionary sequence of rule adjustments from its inception in the 6th century to the modern rules we know today.17 While classical chess still captivates the minds of millions of players worldwide, the game is anything but static. Many variants have been proposed and played over the years by enthusiasts and theorists.8,20 They continue the evolutionary cycle by altering the board, piece placement, or the rules--offering players "something subtle, sparkling, or amusing which cannot be done in ordinary chess."1 Technological progress is the new driver of the evolutionary cycle. Chess engines increase in strength, and players have access to millions of computer games and volumes of opening theory.


Fifty Years of P vs. NP and the Possibility of the Impossible

Communications of the ACM

Lance Fortnow (lfortnow@iit.edu) is a professor and dean of the College of Computing at Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago, IL, USA.


Player of Games

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Games have a long history of serving as a benchmark for progress in artificial intelligence. Recently, approaches using search and learning have shown strong performance across a set of perfect information games, and approaches using game-theoretic reasoning and learning have shown strong performance for specific imperfect information poker variants. We introduce Player of Games, a general-purpose algorithm that unifies previous approaches, combining guided search, self-play learning, and game-theoretic reasoning. Player of Games is the first algorithm to achieve strong empirical performance in large perfect and imperfect information games -- an important step towards truly general algorithms for arbitrary environments. We prove that Player of Games is sound, converging to perfect play as available computation time and approximation capacity increases. Player of Games reaches strong performance in chess and Go, beats the strongest openly available agent in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker (Slumbot), and defeats the state-of-the-art agent in Scotland Yard, an imperfect information game that illustrates the value of guided search, learning, and game-theoretic reasoning.


Search in Imperfect Information Games

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

From the very dawn of the field, search with value functions was a fundamental concept of computer games research. Turing's chess algorithm from 1950 was able to think two moves ahead, and Shannon's work on chess from $1950$ includes an extensive section on evaluation functions to be used within a search. Samuel's checkers program from 1959 already combines search and value functions that are learned through self-play and bootstrapping. TD-Gammon improves upon those ideas and uses neural networks to learn those complex value functions -- only to be again used within search. The combination of decision-time search and value functions has been present in the remarkable milestones where computers bested their human counterparts in long standing challenging games -- DeepBlue for Chess and AlphaGo for Go. Until recently, this powerful framework of search aided with (learned) value functions has been limited to perfect information games. As many interesting problems do not provide the agent perfect information of the environment, this was an unfortunate limitation. This thesis introduces the reader to sound search for imperfect information games.


Chess AI: Competing Paradigms for Machine Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Endgame studies have long served as a tool for testing human creativity and intelligence. We find that they can serve as a tool for testing machine ability as well. Two of the leading chess engines, Stockfish and Leela Chess Zero (LCZero), employ significantly different methods during play. We use Plaskett's Puzzle, a famous endgame study from the late 1970s, to compare the two engines. Our experiments show that Stockfish outperforms LCZero on the puzzle. We examine the algorithmic differences between the engines and use our observations as a basis for carefully interpreting the test results. Drawing inspiration from how humans solve chess problems, we ask whether machines can possess a form of imagination. On the theoretical side, we describe how Bellman's equation may be applied to optimize the probability of winning. To conclude, we discuss the implications of our work on artificial intelligence (AI) and artificial general intelligence (AGI), suggesting possible avenues for future research.


A brief history of AI: how to prevent another winter (a critical review)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The field of artificial intelligence (AI), regarded as one of the most enigmatic areas of science, has witnessed exponential growth in the past decade including a remarkably wide array of applications, having already impacted our everyday lives. Advances in computing power and the design of sophisticated AI algorithms have enabled computers to outperform humans in a variety of tasks, especially in the areas of computer vision and speech recognition. Yet, AI's path has never been smooth, having essentially fallen apart twice in its lifetime ('winters' of AI), both after periods of popular success ('summers' of AI). We provide a brief rundown of AI's evolution over the course of decades, highlighting its crucial moments and major turning points from inception to the present. In doing so, we attempt to learn, anticipate the future, and discuss what steps may be taken to prevent another 'winter'.


114 Milestones In The History Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

#artificialintelligence

In an expanded edition published in 1988, they responded to claims that their 1969 conclusions significantly reduced funding for neural network research: "Our version is that progress had already come to a virtual halt because of the lack of adequate basic theories… by the mid-1960s there had been a great many experiments with perceptrons, but no one had been able to explain why they were able to recognize certain kinds of patterns and not others."


114 Milestones In The History Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

#artificialintelligence

In an expanded edition published in 1988, they responded to claims that their 1969 conclusions significantly reduced funding for neural network research: "Our version is that progress had already come to a virtual halt because of the lack of adequate basic theories… by the mid-1960s there had been a great many experiments with perceptrons, but no one had been able to explain why they were able to recognize certain kinds of patterns and not others."


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

#artificialintelligence

What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.