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Flood Segmentation on Sentinel-1 SAR Imagery with Semi-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Floods wreak havoc throughout the world, causing billions of dollars in damages, and uprooting communities, ecosystems and economies. Accurate and robust flood detection including delineating open water flood areas and identifying flood levels can aid in disaster response and mitigation. However, estimating flood levels remotely is of essence as physical access to flooded areas is limited and the ability to deploy instruments in potential flood zones can be dangerous. Aligning flood extent mapping with local topography can provide a plan-of-action that the disaster response team can consider. Thus, remote flood level estimation via satellites like Sentinel-1 can prove to be remedial. The Emerging Techniques in Computational Intelligence (ETCI) competition on Flood Detection tasked participants with predicting flooded pixels after training with synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images in a supervised setting. We use a cyclical approach involving two stages (1) training an ensemble model of multiple UNet architectures with available high and low confidence labeled data and, generating pseudo labels or low confidence labels on the entire unlabeled test dataset, and then, (2) filter out quality generated labels and, (3) combining the generated labels with the previously available high confidence labeled dataset. This assimilated dataset is used for the next round of training ensemble models. This cyclical process is repeated until the performance improvement plateaus. Additionally, we post process our results with Conditional Random Fields. Our approach sets the second highest score on the public hold-out test leaderboard for the ETCI competition with 0.7654 IoU. To the best of our knowledge we believe this is one of the first works to try out semi-supervised learning to improve flood segmentation models.


Trustworthy AI: A Computational Perspective

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In the past few decades, artificial intelligence (AI) technology has experienced swift developments, changing everyone's daily life and profoundly altering the course of human society. The intention of developing AI is to benefit humans, by reducing human labor, bringing everyday convenience to human lives, and promoting social good. However, recent research and AI applications show that AI can cause unintentional harm to humans, such as making unreliable decisions in safety-critical scenarios or undermining fairness by inadvertently discriminating against one group. Thus, trustworthy AI has attracted immense attention recently, which requires careful consideration to avoid the adverse effects that AI may bring to humans, so that humans can fully trust and live in harmony with AI technologies. Recent years have witnessed a tremendous amount of research on trustworthy AI. In this survey, we present a comprehensive survey of trustworthy AI from a computational perspective, to help readers understand the latest technologies for achieving trustworthy AI. Trustworthy AI is a large and complex area, involving various dimensions. In this work, we focus on six of the most crucial dimensions in achieving trustworthy AI: (i) Safety & Robustness, (ii) Non-discrimination & Fairness, (iii) Explainability, (iv) Privacy, (v) Accountability & Auditability, and (vi) Environmental Well-Being. For each dimension, we review the recent related technologies according to a taxonomy and summarize their applications in real-world systems. We also discuss the accordant and conflicting interactions among different dimensions and discuss potential aspects for trustworthy AI to investigate in the future.


Noisy Channel Language Model Prompting for Few-Shot Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce a noisy channel approach for language model prompting in few-shot text classification. Instead of computing the likelihood of the label given the input (referred as direct models), channel models compute the conditional probability of the input given the label, and are thereby required to explain every word in the input. We use channel models for recently proposed few-shot learning methods with no or very limited updates to the language model parameters, via either in-context demonstration or prompt tuning. Our experiments show that, for both methods, channel models significantly outperform their direct counterparts, which we attribute to their stability, i.e., lower variance and higher worst-case accuracy. We also present extensive ablations that provide recommendations for when to use channel prompt tuning instead of other competitive models (e.g., direct head tuning): channel prompt tuning is preferred when the number of training examples is small, labels in the training data are imbalanced, or generalization to unseen labels is required.


Are Negative Samples Necessary in Entity Alignment? An Approach with High Performance, Scalability and Robustness

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Entity alignment (EA) aims to find the equivalent entities in different KGs, which is a crucial step in integrating multiple KGs. However, most existing EA methods have poor scalability and are unable to cope with large-scale datasets. We summarize three issues leading to such high time-space complexity in existing EA methods: (1) Inefficient graph encoders, (2) Dilemma of negative sampling, and (3) "Catastrophic forgetting" in semi-supervised learning. To address these challenges, we propose a novel EA method with three new components to enable high Performance, high Scalability, and high Robustness (PSR): (1) Simplified graph encoder with relational graph sampling, (2) Symmetric negative-free alignment loss, and (3) Incremental semi-supervised learning. Furthermore, we conduct detailed experiments on several public datasets to examine the effectiveness and efficiency of our proposed method. The experimental results show that PSR not only surpasses the previous SOTA in performance but also has impressive scalability and robustness.


Pre-train, Prompt, and Predict: A Systematic Survey of Prompting Methods in Natural Language Processing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper surveys and organizes research works in a new paradigm in natural language processing, which we dub "prompt-based learning". Unlike traditional supervised learning, which trains a model to take in an input x and predict an output y as P(y|x), prompt-based learning is based on language models that model the probability of text directly. To use these models to perform prediction tasks, the original input x is modified using a template into a textual string prompt x' that has some unfilled slots, and then the language model is used to probabilistically fill the unfilled information to obtain a final string x, from which the final output y can be derived. This framework is powerful and attractive for a number of reasons: it allows the language model to be pre-trained on massive amounts of raw text, and by defining a new prompting function the model is able to perform few-shot or even zero-shot learning, adapting to new scenarios with few or no labeled data. In this paper we introduce the basics of this promising paradigm, describe a unified set of mathematical notations that can cover a wide variety of existing work, and organize existing work along several dimensions, e.g.the choice of pre-trained models, prompts, and tuning strategies. To make the field more accessible to interested beginners, we not only make a systematic review of existing works and a highly structured typology of prompt-based concepts, but also release other resources, e.g., a website http://pretrain.nlpedia.ai/ including constantly-updated survey, and paperlist.


Combining Probabilistic Logic and Deep Learning for Self-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Deep learning has proven effective for various application tasks, but its applicability is limited by the reliance on annotated examples. Self-supervised learning has emerged as a promising direction to alleviate the supervision bottleneck, but existing work focuses on leveraging co-occurrences in unlabeled data for task-agnostic representation learning, as exemplified by masked language model pretraining. In this chapter, we explore task-specific self-supervision, which leverages domain knowledge to automatically annotate noisy training examples for end applications, either by introducing labeling functions for annotating individual instances, or by imposing constraints over interdependent label decisions. We first present deep probabilistic logic(DPL), which offers a unifying framework for task-specific self-supervision by composing probabilistic logic with deep learning. DPL represents unknown labels as latent variables and incorporates diverse self-supervision using probabilistic logic to train a deep neural network end-to-end using variational EM. Next, we present self-supervised self-supervision(S4), which adds to DPL the capability to learn new self-supervision automatically. Starting from an initial seed self-supervision, S4 iteratively uses the deep neural network to propose new self supervision. These are either added directly (a form of structured self-training) or verified by a human expert (as in feature-based active learning). Experiments on real-world applications such as biomedical machine reading and various text classification tasks show that task-specific self-supervision can effectively leverage domain expertise and often match the accuracy of supervised methods with a tiny fraction of human effort.


CCGL: Contrastive Cascade Graph Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Supervised learning, while prevalent for information cascade modeling, often requires abundant labeled data in training, and the trained model is not easy to generalize across tasks and datasets. Semi-supervised learning facilitates unlabeled data for cascade understanding in pre-training. It often learns fine-grained feature-level representations, which can easily result in overfitting for downstream tasks. Recently, contrastive self-supervised learning is designed to alleviate these two fundamental issues in linguistic and visual tasks. However, its direct applicability for cascade modeling, especially graph cascade related tasks, remains underexplored. In this work, we present Contrastive Cascade Graph Learning (CCGL), a novel framework for cascade graph representation learning in a contrastive, self-supervised, and task-agnostic way. In particular, CCGL first designs an effective data augmentation strategy to capture variation and uncertainty. Second, it learns a generic model for graph cascade tasks via self-supervised contrastive pre-training using both unlabeled and labeled data. Third, CCGL learns a task-specific cascade model via fine-tuning using labeled data. Finally, to make the model transferable across datasets and cascade applications, CCGL further enhances the model via distillation using a teacher-student architecture. We demonstrate that CCGL significantly outperforms its supervised and semi-supervised counterpartsfor several downstream tasks.


A Review of Bangla Natural Language Processing Tasks and the Utility of Transformer Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Bangla -- ranked as the 6th most widely spoken language across the world (https://www.ethnologue.com/guides/ethnologue200), with 230 million native speakers -- is still considered as a low-resource language in the natural language processing (NLP) community. With three decades of research, Bangla NLP (BNLP) is still lagging behind mainly due to the scarcity of resources and the challenges that come with it. There is sparse work in different areas of BNLP; however, a thorough survey reporting previous work and recent advances is yet to be done. In this study, we first provide a review of Bangla NLP tasks, resources, and tools available to the research community; we benchmark datasets collected from various platforms for nine NLP tasks using current state-of-the-art algorithms (i.e., transformer-based models). We provide comparative results for the studied NLP tasks by comparing monolingual vs. multilingual models of varying sizes. We report our results using both individual and consolidated datasets and provide data splits for future research. We reviewed a total of 108 papers and conducted 175 sets of experiments. Our results show promising performance using transformer-based models while highlighting the trade-off with computational costs. We hope that such a comprehensive survey will motivate the community to build on and further advance the research on Bangla NLP.


Few-Shot Learning with a Strong Teacher

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Few-shot learning (FSL) aims to train a strong classifier using limited labeled examples. Many existing works take the meta-learning approach, sampling few-shot tasks in turn and optimizing the few-shot learner's performance on classifying the query examples. In this paper, we point out two potential weaknesses of this approach. First, the sampled query examples may not provide sufficient supervision for the few-shot learner. Second, the effectiveness of meta-learning diminishes sharply with increasing shots (i.e., the number of training examples per class). To resolve these issues, we propose a novel objective to directly train the few-shot learner to perform like a strong classifier. Concretely, we associate each sampled few-shot task with a strong classifier, which is learned with ample labeled examples. The strong classifier has a better generalization ability and we use it to supervise the few-shot learner. We present an efficient way to construct the strong classifier, making our proposed objective an easily plug-and-play term to existing meta-learning based FSL methods. We validate our approach in combinations with many representative meta-learning methods. On several benchmark datasets including miniImageNet and tiredImageNet, our approach leads to a notable improvement across a variety of tasks. More importantly, with our approach, meta-learning based FSL methods can consistently outperform non-meta-learning based ones, even in a many-shot setting, greatly strengthening their applicability.


Credal Self-Supervised Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Self-training is an effective approach to semi-supervised learning. The key idea is to let the learner itself iteratively generate "pseudo-supervision" for unlabeled instances based on its current hypothesis. In combination with consistency regularization, pseudo-labeling has shown promising performance in various domains, for example in computer vision. To account for the hypothetical nature of the pseudo-labels, these are commonly provided in the form of probability distributions. Still, one may argue that even a probability distribution represents an excessive level of informedness, as it suggests that the learner precisely knows the ground-truth conditional probabilities. In our approach, we therefore allow the learner to label instances in the form of credal sets, that is, sets of (candidate) probability distributions. Thanks to this increased expressiveness, the learner is able to represent uncertainty and a lack of knowledge in a more flexible and more faithful manner. To learn from weakly labeled data of that kind, we leverage methods that have recently been proposed in the realm of so-called superset learning. In an exhaustive empirical evaluation, we compare our methodology to state-of-the-art self-supervision approaches, showing competitive to superior performance especially in low-label scenarios incorporating a high degree of uncertainty.