"Many researchers … speculate that the information-processing abilities of biological neural systems must follow from highly parallel processes operating on representations that are distributed over many neurons. [Artificial neural networks] capture this kind of highly parallel computation based on distributed representations"
– from Machine Learning (Section 4.1.1; page 82) by Tom M. Mitchell, McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. (1997).
Researchers from Nvidia and Harvard are publishing research this week on a new way they've applied deep learning to epigenomics -- the study of modifications on the genetic material of a cell. Using a neural network originally developed for computer vision, the researchers have developed a deep learning toolkit that can help scientists study rare cell types -- and possibly identify mutations that make people more vulnerable to diseases. The new deep learning toolkit, called AtacWorks, "allows us to study how diseases and genomic variation influence very specific types of cells of the human body," Nvidia researcher Avantika Lal, lead author on the paper, told reporters last week. "And this will enable previously impossible biological discovery, and we hope would also contribute to the discovery of new drug targets." AtacWorks, featured in Nature Communications, works with ATAC-seq -- a popular method for finding the parts of the human genome that are accessible in cells.
This story is part of a series I am creating about neural networks. This chapter is dedicated to a type of neural network known as adaptive linear unit (adaline), whose creation is attributed to Bernard Widrow and Ted Hoff shortly after the perceptron network. Although both adaline and the perceptron were inspired by the McCulloch and Pitts neuron, there are some subtle but significant differences between both networks, some of them having established the foundations of training algorithms in current neural network architectures. Ted Hoff was Widrow's doctorate student (fun fact: he was also Intel's employee number 12). Their partnership during this time resulted in adaline neuron's work, published in 1960.
For a more in-depth explanation of Forward Propagation and Backpropagation in neural networks, please refer to my other article What is Deep Learning and How does it work? For a given input vector x the neural network predicts an output, which is generally called a prediction vector y. We must compute a dot-product between the input vector x and the weight matrix W1 that connects the first layers with the second. After that, we apply a non-linear activation function to the result of the dot-product. Depending on the task we want the network to do, this prediction vector represents different things.
The search for planets orbiting other stars has reached industrial scale. Astronomers have discovered over 4,000 of them, more than half using data from the Kepler space telescope, an orbiting observatory designed for this purpose. Launched in 2009, Kepler observed a fixed field of view for many months, looking for the tiny periodical changes in stars' brightness caused by planets moving in front of them. But in 2012 the mission ran into trouble when one of the spacecraft's four reaction wheels failed. These wheels stabilize the craft, allowing it to point accurately in a specific direction.
Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML) are gaining increasing traction in today's digital world. Machine learning (ML) is a subset of AI involving the study of computer algorithms that allows computers to learn and grow from experience apart from human intervention. Python has been the go-to choice for Machine Learning and Artificial Intelligence developers for a long time. Python offers some of the best flexibilities and features to developers that not only increase their productivity but the quality of the code as well, not to mention the extensive libraries helping ease the workload. Arthur Samuel said -- "Machine Learning is the field of study that gives computers the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed." The NumPy library for Python concentrates on handling extensive multi-dimensional data and the intricate mathematical functions operating on the data.
Build your own pipeline based on modern TensorFlow approaches rather than outdated engineering concepts. This book shows you how to build a deep learning pipeline for real-life TensorFlow projects. You'll learn what a pipeline is and how it works so you can build a full application easily and rapidly. Then troubleshoot and overcome basic Tensorflow obstacles to easily create functional apps and deploy well-trained models. Step-by-step and example-oriented instructions help you understand each step of the deep learning pipeline while you apply the most straightforward and effective tools to demonstrative problems and datasets.
Most artificial intelligence is still built on a foundation of human toil. Peer inside an AI algorithm and you'll find something constructed using data that was curated and labeled by an army of human workers. Now, Facebook has shown how some AI algorithms can learn to do useful work with far less human help. The company built an algorithm that learned to recognize objects in images with little help from labels. The Facebook algorithm, called Seer (for SElf-supERvised), fed on more than a billion images scraped from Instagram, deciding for itself which objects look alike. Images with whiskers, fur, and pointy ears, for example, were collected into one pile.
Algorithms tend to scare a lot of ML practitioners away, including me. The field of machine learning arose as a method to eliminate the need to implement heuristic algorithms to detect patterns, we left feature detection to neural networks. Still, algorithms have their place in the software and computing domain, and certainly within the machine learning field. Practising the implementation of algorithms is one of the recommended ways to sharpen your programming skills. Apart from the apparent benefit of building intuition on implementing memory-efficient code, there's another benefit to tackling algorithms which is the development of a problem-solving mindset.
In recent years, videogame developers and computer scientists have been trying to devise techniques that can make gaming experiences increasingly immersive, engaging and realistic. These include methods to automatically create videogame characters inspired by real people. Most existing methods to create and customize videogame characters require players to adjust the features of their character's face manually, in order to recreate their own face or the faces of other people. More recently, some developers have tried to develop methods that can automatically customize a character's face by analyzing images of real people's faces. However, these methods are not always effective and do not always reproduce the faces they analyze in realistic ways.
In this Data Science Salon talk, Kashif Rasul, Principal Research Scientist at Zalando, presents some modern probabilistic time series forecasting methods using deep learning. The Data Science Salon is a unique vertical focused conference which grew into the most diverse community of senior data science, machine learning and other technical specialists in the space.