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Memory-Based Learning: Overviews


Good Counterfactuals and Where to Find Them: A Case-Based Technique for Generating Counterfactuals for Explainable AI (XAI)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recently, a groundswell of research has identified the use of counterfactual explanations as a potentially significant solution to the Explainable AI (XAI) problem. It is argued that (a) technically, these counterfactual cases can be generated by permuting problem-features until a class change is found, (b) psychologically, they are much more causally informative than factual explanations, (c) legally, they are GDPR-compliant. However, there are issues around the finding of good counterfactuals using current techniques (e.g. sparsity and plausibility). We show that many commonly-used datasets appear to have few good counterfactuals for explanation purposes. So, we propose a new case based approach for generating counterfactuals using novel ideas about the counterfactual potential and explanatory coverage of a case-base. The new technique reuses patterns of good counterfactuals, present in a case-base, to generate analogous counterfactuals that can explain new problems and their solutions. Several experiments show how this technique can improve the counterfactual potential and explanatory coverage of case-bases that were previously found wanting.


Behavior Cloning in OpenAI using Case Based Reasoning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning from Observation (LfO), also known as Behavioral Cloning, is an approach for building software agents by recording the behavior of an expert (human or artificial) and using the recorded data to generate the required behavior. jLOAF is a platform that uses Case-Based Reasoning to achieve LfO. In this paper we interface jLOAF with the popular OpenAI Gym environment. Our experimental results show how our approach can be used to provide a baseline for comparison in this domain, as well as identify the strengths and weaknesses when dealing with environmental complexity.


An Overview of Distance and Similarity Functions for Structured Data

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The notions of distance and similarity play a key role in many machine learning approaches, and artificial intelligence (AI) in general, since they can serve as an organizing principle by which individuals classify objects, form concepts and make generalizations. While distance functions for propositional representations have been thoroughly studied, work on distance functions for structured representations, such as graphs, frames or logical clauses, has been carried out in different communities and is much less understood. Specifically, a significant amount of work that requires the use of a distance or similarity function for structured representations of data usually employs ad-hoc functions for specific applications. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide an overview of this work to identify connections between the work carried out in different areas and point out directions for future work.


A Voice Interactive Multilingual Student Support System using IBM Watson

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

-- Systems powered by artificial intelligence are being developed to be more user - friendly by communicating with users in a progressively "human - like" conversational way. Chatbots, also known as dialogue systems, interactive conversational agents, or virtual agents are an example of such systems used in a wide variety of applications ranging from customer support in the business domain to companionship in the healthcare sector. It is becoming increasingly important to develop chatbots that can best respond to the personalized needs of thei r users, so that they can be as helpful to the user as possible in a real human way. This paper investigates and compare s three popular existing chatbots API offerings and then propose and develop a voice interactive and multilingual chatbot that can effec tively respond to users' mood, tone, and language using IBM Watson Assistant, Tone Analyzer, and Language Translator. The chatbot was evaluated using a use case that was targeted at responding to users' needs regarding exam stress based on university stude nts survey data generated using Google Forms. The results of measuring the chatbot effectiveness at analyzing responses regarding exam stress indicate that the chatbot responding appropriately to the user queries regarding how they are feeling about exams 76.5%. The chatbot could also be adapted for use in other application areas such as student info - centers, government kiosks, and mental health support systems . We have long envisioned that in the near future computers will fully understand natural language, anticipate our needs and proactively complete tasks on our behalf [1] .


The Twin-System Approach as One Generic Solution for XAI: An Overview of ANN-CBR Twins for Explaining Deep Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The notion of twin systems is proposed to address the eXplainable AI (XAI) problem, where an uninterpretable black-box system is mapped to a white-box 'twin' that is more interpretable. In this short paper, we overview very recent work that advances a generic solution to the XAI problem, the so called twin system approach. The most popular twinning in the literature is that between an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN ) as a black box and Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system as a white-box, where the latter acts as an interpretable proxy for the former. We outline how recent work reviving this idea has applied it to deep learning methods. Furthermore, we detail the many fruitful directions in which this work may be taken; such as, determining the most (i) accurate feature-weighting methods to be used, (ii) appropriate deployments for explanatory cases, (iii) useful cases of explanatory value to users.


Prediction of Construction Cost for Field Canals Improvement Projects in Egypt

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Field canals improvement projects (FCIPs) are one of the ambitious projects constructed to save fresh water. To finance this project, Conceptual cost models are important to accurately predict preliminary costs at the early stages of the project. The first step is to develop a conceptual cost model to identify key cost drivers affecting the project. Therefore, input variables selection remains an important part of model development, as the poor variables selection can decrease model precision. The study discovered the most important drivers of FCIPs based on a qualitative approach and a quantitative approach. Subsequently, the study has developed a parametric cost model based on machine learning methods such as regression methods, artificial neural networks, fuzzy model and case-based reasoning.


How Case Based Reasoning Explained Neural Networks: An XAI Survey of Post-Hoc Explanation-by-Example in ANN-CBR Twins

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a theoretical analysis of one approach to the eXplainable AI (XAI) problem, using post-hoc explanation-by-example, that relies on the twinning of artificial neural networks (ANNs) with case-based reasoning (CBR) systems; so-called ANN-CBR twins. It surveys these systems to advance a new theoretical interpretation of previous work and define a road map for CBR's further role in XAI. A systematic survey of 1102 papers was conducted to identify a fragmented literature on this topic and trace its influence to more recent work involving deep neural networks (DNNs). The twin-system approach is advanced as one possible coherent, generic solution to the XAI problem. The paper concludes by road-mapping future directions for this XAI solution, considering (i) further tests of feature-weighting techniques, (ii) how explanatory cases might be deployed (e.g., in counterfactuals, a fortori cases), and (iii) the unwelcome, much-ignored issue of user evaluation.


Comparing Machine Learning as a Service: Amazon, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud AI, IBM Watson

#artificialintelligence

For most businesses, machine learning seems close to rocket science, appearing expensive and talent demanding. And, if you're aiming at building another Netflix recommendation system, it really is. But the trend of making everything-as-a-service has affected this sophisticated sphere, too. You can jump-start an ML initiative without much investment, which would be the right move if you are new to data science and just want to grab the low hanging fruit. One of ML's most inspiring stories is the one about a Japanese farmer who decided to sort cucumbers automatically to help his parents with this painstaking operation. Unlike the stories that abound about large enterprises, the guy had neither expertise in machine learning, nor a big budget. But he did manage to get familiar with TensorFlow and employed deep learning to recognize different classes of cucumbers. By using machine learning cloud services, you can start building your first working models, yielding valuable insights from predictions with a relatively small team. We've already discussed machine learning strategy. Now let's have a look at the best machine learning platforms on the market and consider some of the infrastructural decisions to be made.


How Complex is your classification problem? A survey on measuring classification complexity

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Extracting characteristics from the training datasets of classification problems has proven effective in a number of meta-analyses. Among them, measures of classification complexity can estimate the difficulty in separating the data points into their expected classes. Descriptors of the spatial distribution of the data and estimates of the shape and size of the decision boundary are among the existent measures for this characterization. This information can support the formulation of new data-driven pre-processing and pattern recognition techniques, which can in turn be focused on challenging characteristics of the problems. This paper surveys and analyzes measures which can be extracted from the training datasets in order to characterize the complexity of the respective classification problems. Their use in recent literature is also reviewed and discussed, allowing to prospect opportunities for future work in the area. Finally, descriptions are given on an R package named Extended Complexity Library (ECoL) that implements a set of complexity measures and is made publicly available.


Anatomy of customer support automation with IBM Watson

#artificialintelligence

Deliver lightening fast customer support at scale requires a lot of resources and this is why you want your end users or employee to be able to self serve as much as possible. Bots have been around for a long time, but recent advances in natural language processing drove huge adoption over the last year. They are now being used to enhance a broad set of experiences with customer service being one of the most relevant. In this article we're going to learn what does it take to save time to our customer support team. To do this we'll build a chatbot to automate answers to frequently asked questions, eventually saving precious time to your customer support operators so they can focus on more complex requests.