[Sometimes called Case-Based Reasoning or CBR]
"At the highest level of generality, a general CBR cycle may be described by the following four processes: 1. RETRIEVE the most similar case or cases. 2. REUSE the information and knowledge in that case to solve the problem. 3. REVISE the proposed solution. 4. RETAIN the parts of this experience likely to be useful for future problem solving "– from Case-Based Reasoning: Foundational Issues, Methodological Variations, and System Approaches. By A. Aamodt and E. Plaza. (1994)
We review the scholarly contributions that utilise Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods to support the design process. Using a heuristic approach, we collected 223 articles published in 32 journals and within the period 1991-present. We present state-of-the-art NLP in-and-for design research by reviewing these articles according to the type of natural language text sources: internal reports, design concepts, discourse transcripts, technical publications, consumer opinions, and others. Upon summarizing and identifying the gaps in these contributions, we utilise an existing design innovation framework to identify the applications that are currently being supported by NLP. We then propose a few methodological and theoretical directions for future NLP in-and-for design research.
Recently, it has been proposed that fruitful synergies may exist between Deep Learning (DL) and Case Based Reasoning (CBR); that there are insights to be gained by applying CBR ideas to problems in DL (what could be called DeepCBR). In this paper, we report on a program of research that applies CBR solutions to the problem of Explainable AI (XAI) in the DL. We describe a series of twin-systems pairings of opaque DL models with transparent CBR models that allow the latter to explain the former using factual, counterfactual and semi-factual explanation strategies. This twinning shows that functional abstractions of DL (e.g., feature weights, feature importance and decision boundaries) can be used to drive these explanatory solutions. We also raise the prospect that this research also applies to the problem of Data Augmentation in DL, underscoring the fecundity of these DeepCBR ideas.
Recent applications of autonomous agents and robots, such as self-driving cars, scenario-based trainers, exploration robots, and service robots have brought attention to crucial trust-related challenges associated with the current generation of artificial intelligence (AI) systems. AI systems based on the connectionist deep learning neural network approach lack capabilities of explaining their decisions and actions to others, despite their great successes. Without symbolic interpretation capabilities, they are black boxes, which renders their decisions or actions opaque, making it difficult to trust them in safety-critical applications. The recent stance on the explainability of AI systems has witnessed several approaches on eXplainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI); however, most of the studies have focused on data-driven XAI systems applied in computational sciences. Studies addressing the increasingly pervasive goal-driven agents and robots are still missing. This paper reviews approaches on explainable goal-driven intelligent agents and robots, focusing on techniques for explaining and communicating agents perceptual functions (example, senses, and vision) and cognitive reasoning (example, beliefs, desires, intention, plans, and goals) with humans in the loop. The review highlights key strategies that emphasize transparency, understandability, and continual learning for explainability. Finally, the paper presents requirements for explainability and suggests a roadmap for the possible realization of effective goal-driven explainable agents and robots.
Recently, a groundswell of research has identified the use of counterfactual explanations as a potentially significant solution to the Explainable AI (XAI) problem. It is argued that (a) technically, these counterfactual cases can be generated by permuting problem-features until a class change is found, (b) psychologically, they are much more causally informative than factual explanations, (c) legally, they are GDPR-compliant. However, there are issues around the finding of good counterfactuals using current techniques (e.g. sparsity and plausibility). We show that many commonly-used datasets appear to have few good counterfactuals for explanation purposes. So, we propose a new case based approach for generating counterfactuals using novel ideas about the counterfactual potential and explanatory coverage of a case-base. The new technique reuses patterns of good counterfactuals, present in a case-base, to generate analogous counterfactuals that can explain new problems and their solutions. Several experiments show how this technique can improve the counterfactual potential and explanatory coverage of case-bases that were previously found wanting.
The notions of distance and similarity play a key role in many machine learning approaches, and artificial intelligence (AI) in general, since they can serve as an organizing principle by which individuals classify objects, form concepts and make generalizations. While distance functions for propositional representations have been thoroughly studied, work on distance functions for structured representations, such as graphs, frames or logical clauses, has been carried out in different communities and is much less understood. Specifically, a significant amount of work that requires the use of a distance or similarity function for structured representations of data usually employs ad-hoc functions for specific applications. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to provide an overview of this work to identify connections between the work carried out in different areas and point out directions for future work.
The notion of twin systems is proposed to address the eXplainable AI (XAI) problem, where an uninterpretable black-box system is mapped to a white-box 'twin' that is more interpretable. In this short paper, we overview very recent work that advances a generic solution to the XAI problem, the so called twin system approach. The most popular twinning in the literature is that between an Artificial Neural Networks (ANN ) as a black box and Case Based Reasoning (CBR) system as a white-box, where the latter acts as an interpretable proxy for the former. We outline how recent work reviving this idea has applied it to deep learning methods. Furthermore, we detail the many fruitful directions in which this work may be taken; such as, determining the most (i) accurate feature-weighting methods to be used, (ii) appropriate deployments for explanatory cases, (iii) useful cases of explanatory value to users.
Field canals improvement projects (FCIPs) are one of the ambitious projects constructed to save fresh water. To finance this project, Conceptual cost models are important to accurately predict preliminary costs at the early stages of the project. The first step is to develop a conceptual cost model to identify key cost drivers affecting the project. Therefore, input variables selection remains an important part of model development, as the poor variables selection can decrease model precision. The study discovered the most important drivers of FCIPs based on a qualitative approach and a quantitative approach. Subsequently, the study has developed a parametric cost model based on machine learning methods such as regression methods, artificial neural networks, fuzzy model and case-based reasoning.
This paper proposes a theoretical analysis of one approach to the eXplainable AI (XAI) problem, using post-hoc explanation-by-example, that relies on the twinning of artificial neural networks (ANNs) with case-based reasoning (CBR) systems; so-called ANN-CBR twins. It surveys these systems to advance a new theoretical interpretation of previous work and define a road map for CBR's further role in XAI. A systematic survey of 1102 papers was conducted to identify a fragmented literature on this topic and trace its influence to more recent work involving deep neural networks (DNNs). The twin-system approach is advanced as one possible coherent, generic solution to the XAI problem. The paper concludes by road-mapping future directions for this XAI solution, considering (i) further tests of feature-weighting techniques, (ii) how explanatory cases might be deployed (e.g., in counterfactuals, a fortori cases), and (iii) the unwelcome, much-ignored issue of user evaluation.
Extracting characteristics from the training datasets of classification problems has proven effective in a number of meta-analyses. Among them, measures of classification complexity can estimate the difficulty in separating the data points into their expected classes. Descriptors of the spatial distribution of the data and estimates of the shape and size of the decision boundary are among the existent measures for this characterization. This information can support the formulation of new data-driven pre-processing and pattern recognition techniques, which can in turn be focused on challenging characteristics of the problems. This paper surveys and analyzes measures which can be extracted from the training datasets in order to characterize the complexity of the respective classification problems. Their use in recent literature is also reviewed and discussed, allowing to prospect opportunities for future work in the area. Finally, descriptions are given on an R package named Extended Complexity Library (ECoL) that implements a set of complexity measures and is made publicly available.
Deliver lightening fast customer support at scale requires a lot of resources and this is why you want your end users or employee to be able to self serve as much as possible. Bots have been around for a long time, but recent advances in natural language processing drove huge adoption over the last year. They are now being used to enhance a broad set of experiences with customer service being one of the most relevant. In this article we're going to learn what does it take to save time to our customer support team. To do this we'll build a chatbot to automate answers to frequently asked questions, eventually saving precious time to your customer support operators so they can focus on more complex requests.