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Memory-Based Learning

Derivational analogy: A theory of reconstructive problem solving and expertise acquisition


CMU-CS-85-115, Carnegie Mellon University. Reprinted in Michalski, R. S., Carbonell, J. G., and Mitchell, T. M., (Eds.), Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach, volume 2, chapter 14, pages 371-392. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers. Derivational analogy, a method of solving problems based on the transfer of past experience to new probiem situations, is discussed in the context of other general approaches to problem solving. The experience transfer process consists of recreating lines of reasoning, including decision sequences and accompanying justifications, that proved effective in solving particular problems requiring similar initial analysis. The role of derivational analogy in case-based reasoning and in automated expertise acquisition is discussed.

Machine Intelligence 3


Note: PDF of full volume downloadable by clicking on title above (26 MB). Selected individual chapters available from the links below. CONTENTSINTRODUCTION MATHEMATICAL FOUNDATIONS1 The morphology of prex—an essay in meta-algorithmics. J. LAS KS 32 Program schemata. M. S. PATE RSON 193 Language definition and compiler validation. J. J. FLORENTIN 334 Placing trees in lexicographic order. H. I.S COINS 43 THEOREM PROVING5 A new look at mathematics and its mechanization. B. M ELTZER 636 Some notes on resolution strategies. B. MELTZER 717 The generalized resolution principle. J. A. ROBINSON 778 Some tree-paring strategies for theorem proving. D.LUCKHAM 959 Automatic theorem proving with equality substitutions andmathematical induction. J. L. D ARLINGTON 113 MACHINE LEARNING AND HEURISTIC PROGRAMMING10 On representations of problems of reasoning about actions.S.AMAREL 13111 Descriptions. E.W.ELCOCK 17312 Kalah on Atlas. A.G.BELL 18113 Experiments with a pleasure-seeking automaton: J. E. DORAN 19514 Collective behaviour and control problems. V.I.VARSHAVSKY 217 MAN—MACHINE INTERACTION15 A comparison of heuristic, interactive, and unaided methods ofsolving a shortest-route problem. D.MICHIE, J. G. FLEMING andJ. V.OLDFIELD 24516 Interactive programming at Carnegie Tech. A.H.BOND 25717 Maintenance of large computer systems—the engineer's assistant.M.H.J.BAYLIS 269 COGNITIVE PROCESSES: METHODS AND MODELS18 The syntactic analysis of English by machine. J.P.THORNE,P.BRATLEY and H.DEWAR 28119 The adaptive memorization of sequences. H.C.LONOUETHIGGINSand A.ORTONY 311 PATTERN RECOGNITION20 An application of Graph Theory in pattern recognition.C.J.HILDITCH 325 PROBLEM-ORIENTED LANGUAGES21 Some semantics for data structures. D. PARK 35122 Writing search algorithms in functional form. R.M.BURSTALL 37323 Assertions: programs written without specifying unnecessaryorder. J.M.FOSTER 38724 The design philosophy of Pop-2. R.J.POPPLESTONE 393 INDEX 403 Machine Intelligence Workshop

The simulation of verbal learning behavior


The purpose of this report is to describe in detail an informationProcessing model of elementary human symbolic learning processes. Thismodel is realized by a computer program called the Elementary Perceiverand Memorizer (EPAM).The EPAM program is the precise statement of an information processingtheory of verbal learning that provides an alternative to other verballearning theories which have been proposed.1 It is the result of an attemptto state quite precisely a parsimonious and plausible mechanism sufficientto account for the rote learning of nonsense syllables. The criticalevaluation of EPAM must ultimately depend not upon the interest whichit may have as a learning machine, but upon its ability to explain andPredict the phenomena of verbal learning. Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference, 1961, 19:121-132. Reprinted in Feigenbaum & Feldman, Computers and Thought (1963).