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Inductive Learning


Neural Network Perception for Mobile Robot Guidance

Classics

Vision based mobile robot guidance has proven difficult for classical machine vision methods because of the diversity and real time constraints inherent in the task. This thesis describes a connectionist system called ALVINN (Autonomous Land Vehicle In a Neural Network) that overcomes these difficulties. ALVINN learns to guide mobile robots using the back-propagation training algorithm. Because of its ability to learn from example, ALVINN can adapt to new situations and therefore cope with the diversity of the autonomous navigation task. But real world problems like vision based mobile robot guidance presents a different set of challenges for the connectionist paradigm.


Learning Problem-Solving Heuristics by Experimentation

Classics

Machine Learning: An Artificial Intelligence Approach contains tutorial overviews and research papers representative of trends in the area of machine learning as viewed from an artificial intelligence perspective. The book is organized into six parts. Part I provides an overview of machine learning and explains why machines should learn. Part II covers important issues affecting the design of learning programs-particularly programs that learn from examples. It also describes inductive learning systems.


What size net gives valid generalization?

Classics

We address the question of when a network can be expected to generalize from m random training examples chosen from some arbitrary probability distribution, assuming that future test examples are drawn from the same distribution. Among our results are the following bounds on appropriate sample vs. network size. We show that if m O(W/ log N/) random examples can be loaded on a feedforward network of linear threshold functions with N nodes and W weights, so that at least a fraction 1 /2 of the examples are correctly classified, then one has confidence approaching certainty that the network will correctly classify a fraction 1 of future test examples drawn from the same distribution. Conversely, for fully-connected feedforward nets with one hidden layer, any learning algorithm using fewer than Ω(W/) random training examples will, for some distributions of examples consistent with an appropriate weight choice, fail at least some fixed fraction of the time to find a weight choice that will correctly classify more than a 1 fraction of the future test examples.


Explanation-Based Generalization: A Unifying View

Classics

"The problem of formulating general concepts from specific training examples has long been a major focus of machine learning research. While most previous research has focused on empirical methods for generalizing from a large number of training examples using no domain-specific knowledge, in the past few years new methods have been developed for applying domain-specific knowledge to formulate valid generalizations from single training examples. The characteristic common to these methods is that their ability to generalize from a single example follows from their ability to explain why the training example is a member of the concept being learned. This paper proposes a general, domain-independent mechanism, called EBG, that unifies previous approaches to explanation-based generalization. The EBG method is illustrated in the context of several example problems, and used to contrast several existing systems for explanation-based generalization. The perspective on explanation-based generalization afforded by this general method is also used to identify open research problems in this area." Machine Learning, 1 (1), 47–80.


Generalization as Search

Classics

"The purpose of this paper is to compare various approaches to generalization in terms of a single framework. Toward this end, generalization is cast as a search problem, and alternative methods for generalization are characterized in terms of the search strategies that they employ. This characterization uncovers similarities among approaches, and leads to a comparison of relative capabilities and computational complexities of alternative approaches. The characterization allows a precise comparison of systems that utilize different representations for learned generalizations."Artificial Intelligence, 18 (2), 203-26.


Models of learning systems

Classics

"The terms adaptation, learning, concept-formation, induction, self-organization, and self-repair have all been used in the context of learning system (LS) research. The research has been conducted within many different scientific communities, however, and these terms have come to have a variety of meanings. It is therefore often difficult to recognize that problems which are described differently may in fact be identical. Learning system models as well are often tuned to the require- ments of a particular discipline and are not suitable for application in related disciplines."In Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology, Vol. 11. Dekker


An experiment on inductive learning in chess end games.

Classics

In E. W. Elcock and D. Michie (Eds.), Machine intelligence 8. New York: Wiley.