Learning to Classify with Branching Tests: "A decision tree takes as input an object or situation described by a set of properties, and outputs a yes/no decision. Decision trees therefore represent Boolean functions. Functions with a larger range of outputs can also be represented...."
– Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach. By Stuart Russell & Peter Norvig. 2002. Section 18.3; page 531.
Background: Major depressive disorder (MDD) or depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders, affecting more than 300 million people globally. Early detection is critical for rapid intervention, which can potentially reduce the escalation of the disorder. Objective: This study used data from social media networks to explore various methods of early detection of MDDs based on machine learning. We performed a thorough analysis of the dataset to characterize the subjects' behavior based on different aspects of their writings: textual spreading, time gap, and time span. Methods: We proposed 2 different approaches based on machine learning singleton and dual.
Which is better: Random Forest or Neural Network? This is a common question, with a very easy answer: it depends:). I will try to show you when it is good to use Random Forest and when to use Neural Network. First of all, Random Forest (RF) and Neural Network (NN) are different types of algorithms. The RF is the ensemble of decision trees.
Dependence numbers close to one indicate that the feature is completely predictable using the other features, which means it could be dropped without affecting accuracy. For example, the mean radius is extremely important in predicting mean perimeter and mean area, so we can probably drop those two. It also looks like radius error is important to predicting perimeter error and area error, so we can drop those last two. Mean and worst texture also appear to be dependent, so we can drop one of those too. Similarly, let's drop concavity error and fractal dimension error because compactness error seems to predict them well.
Random Forest is a flexible, easy to use machine learning algorithm that produces, even without hyper-parameter tuning, a great result most of the time. It is also one of the most used algorithms, because it's simplicity and the fact that it can be used for both classification and regression tasks. In this post, you are going to learn, how the random forest algorithm works and several other important things about it. Random Forest is a supervised learning algorithm. Like you can already see from it's name, it creates a forest and makes it somehow random.
Now you may ask yourself: how do DTs know which features to select and how to split the data? To understand that, we need to get into some details. All DTs perform basically the same task: they examine all the attributes of the dataset to find the ones that give the best possible result by splitting the data into subgroups. They perform this task recursively by splitting subgroups into smaller and smaller units until the Tree is finished (stopped by certain criteria). This decision of making splits heavily affects the Tree's accuracy and performance, and for that decision, DTs can use different algorithms that differ in the possible structure of the Tree (e.g. the number of splits per node), the criteria on how to perform the splits, and when to stop splitting.
A decision tree is a supervised machine learning model used to predict a target by learning decision rules from features. As the name suggests, we can think of this model as breaking down our data by making a decision based on asking a series of questions. Let's consider the following example in which we use a decision tree to decide upon an activity on a particular day: Based on the features in our training set, the decision tree model learns a series of questions to infer the class labels of the samples. As we can see, decision trees are attractive models if we care about interpretability. Although the preceding figure illustrates the concept of a decision tree based on categorical targets (classification), the same concept applies if our targets are real numbers (regression).
This toolkit serves to execute RFEX 2.0 "pipeline" e.g. a set of steps to produce information which comprises RFEX 2.0 summary namely information to enhance explainability of Random Forest classifier. It comes with the synthetically generated test database which helps to demonstrate how RFEX 2.0 works. Wth this toolkit users can also use their own data to generate RFEX 2.0 summary. Background of the RFEX 2.0 method, as well as the description and access to the synthetic test database convenient to test and demonstrate can be found in TR 18.01 at cs.sfsu.edu Users are strongly advised to read the above report before using this toolkit.
We investigate how asymmetrizing an impurity function affects the choice of optimal node splits when growing a decision tree for binary classification. In particular, we relax the usual axioms of an impurity function and show how skewing an impurity function biases the optimal splits to isolate points of a particular class when splitting a node. We give a rigorous definition of this notion, then give a necessary and sufficient condition for such a bias to hold. We also show that the technique of class weighting is equivalent to applying a specific transformation to the impurity function, and tie all these notions together for a class of impurity functions that includes the entropy and Gini impurity. We also briefly discuss cost-insensitive impurity functions and give a characterization of such functions.
Decision tree algorithms have been among the most popular algorithms for interpretable (transparent) machine learning since the early 1980's. The problem that has plagued decision tree algorithms since their inception is their lack of optimality, or lack of guarantees of closeness to optimality: decision tree algorithms are often greedy or myopic, and sometimes produce unquestionably suboptimal models. Hardness of decision tree optimization is both a theoretical and practical obstacle, and even careful mathematical programming approaches have not been able to solve these problems efficiently. This work introduces the first practical algorithm for optimal decision trees for binary variables. The algorithm is a co-design of analytical bounds that reduce the search space and modern systems techniques, including data structures and a custom bit-vector library. We highlight possible steps to improving the scalability and speed of future generations of this algorithm based on insights from our theory and experiments.