Control Theory

Regret Lower Bounds for Learning Linear Quadratic Gaussian Systems Machine Learning

This paper presents local minimax regret lower bounds for adaptively controlling linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) systems. We consider smoothly parametrized instances and provide an understanding of when logarithmic regret is impossible which is both instance specific and flexible enough to take problem structure into account. This understanding relies on two key notions: That of local-uninformativeness; when the optimal policy does not provide sufficient excitation for identification of the optimal policy, and yields a degenerate Fisher information matrix; and that of information-regret-boundedness, when the small eigenvalues of a policy-dependent information matrix are boundable in terms of the regret of that policy. Combined with a reduction to Bayesian estimation and application of Van Trees' inequality, these two conditions are sufficient for proving regret bounds on order of magnitude $\sqrt{T}$ in the time horizon, $T$. This method yields lower bounds that exhibit tight dimensional dependencies and scale naturally with control-theoretic problem constants. For instance, we are able to prove that systems operating near marginal stability are fundamentally hard to learn to control. We further show that large classes of systems satisfy these conditions, among them any state-feedback system with both $A$- and $B$-matrices unknown. Most importantly, we also establish that a nontrivial class of partially observable systems, essentially those that are over-actuated, satisfy these conditions, thus providing a $\sqrt{T}$ lower bound also valid for partially observable systems. Finally, we turn to two simple examples which demonstrate that our lower bound captures classical control-theoretic intuition: our lower bounds diverge for systems operating near marginal stability or with large filter gain -- these can be arbitrarily hard to (learn to) control.

A Reinforcement Learning-based Adaptive Control Model for Future Street Planning, An Algorithm and A Case Study Artificial Intelligence

With the emerging technologies in Intelligent Transportation System (ITS), the adaptive operation of road space is likely to be realised within decades. An intelligent street can learn and improve its decision-making on the right-of-way (ROW) for road users, liberating more active pedestrian space while maintaining traffic safety and efficiency. However, there is a lack of effective controlling techniques for these adaptive street infrastructures. To fill this gap in existing studies, we formulate this control problem as a Markov Game and develop a solution based on the multi-agent Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (MADDPG) algorithm. The proposed model can dynamically assign ROW for sidewalks, autonomous vehicles (AVs) driving lanes and on-street parking areas in real-time. Integrated with the SUMO traffic simulator, this model was evaluated using the road network of the South Kensington District against three cases of divergent traffic conditions: pedestrian flow rates, AVs traffic flow rates and parking demands. Results reveal that our model can achieve an average reduction of 3.87% and 6.26% in street space assigned for on-street parking and vehicular operations. Combined with space gained by limiting the number of driving lanes, the average proportion of sidewalks to total widths of streets can significantly increase by 10.13%.

Identification and Adaptive Control of Markov Jump Systems: Sample Complexity and Regret Bounds Machine Learning

Learning how to effectively control unknown dynamical systems is crucial for intelligent autonomous systems. This task becomes a significant challenge when the underlying dynamics are changing with time. Motivated by this challenge, this paper considers the problem of controlling an unknown Markov jump linear system (MJS) to optimize a quadratic objective. By taking a model-based perspective, we consider identification-based adaptive control for MJSs. We first provide a system identification algorithm for MJS to learn the dynamics in each mode as well as the Markov transition matrix, underlying the evolution of the mode switches, from a single trajectory of the system states, inputs, and modes. Through mixing-time arguments, sample complexity of this algorithm is shown to be $\mathcal{O}(1/\sqrt{T})$. We then propose an adaptive control scheme that performs system identification together with certainty equivalent control to adapt the controllers in an episodic fashion. Combining our sample complexity results with recent perturbation results for certainty equivalent control, we prove that when the episode lengths are appropriately chosen, the proposed adaptive control scheme achieves $\mathcal{O}(\sqrt{T})$ regret, which can be improved to $\mathcal{O}(polylog(T))$ with partial knowledge of the system. Our proof strategy introduces innovations to handle Markovian jumps and a weaker notion of stability common in MJSs. Our analysis provides insights into system theoretic quantities that affect learning accuracy and control performance. Numerical simulations are presented to further reinforce these insights.

Lessons from AlphaZero for Optimal, Model Predictive, and Adaptive Control Artificial Intelligence

In this paper we aim to provide analysis and insights (often based on visualization), which explain the beneficial effects of on-line decision making on top of off-line training. In particular, through a unifying abstract mathematical framework, we show that the principal AlphaZero/TD-Gammon ideas of approximation in value space and rollout apply very broadly to deterministic and stochastic optimal control problems, involving both discrete and continuous search spaces. Moreover, these ideas can be effectively integrated with other important methodologies such as model predictive control, adaptive control, decentralized control, discrete and Bayesian optimization, neural network-based value and policy approximations, and heuristic algorithms for discrete optimization.

Stochastic Deep Model Reference Adaptive Control Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we present a Stochastic Deep Neural Network-based Model Reference Adaptive Control. Building on our work "Deep Model Reference Adaptive Control", we extend the controller capability by using Bayesian deep neural networks (DNN) to represent uncertainties and model non-linearities. Stochastic Deep Model Reference Adaptive Control uses a Lyapunov-based method to adapt the output-layer weights of the DNN model in real-time, while a data-driven supervised learning algorithm is used to update the inner-layers parameters. This asynchronous network update ensures boundedness and guaranteed tracking performance with a learning-based real-time feedback controller. A Bayesian approach to DNN learning helped avoid over-fitting the data and provide confidence intervals over the predictions. The controller's stochastic nature also ensured "Induced Persistency of excitation," leading to convergence of the overall system signal.

Meta-Adaptive Nonlinear Control: Theory and Algorithms Artificial Intelligence

We present an online multi-task learning approach for adaptive nonlinear control, which we call Online Meta-Adaptive Control (OMAC). The goal is to control a nonlinear system subject to adversarial disturbance and unknown $\textit{environment-dependent}$ nonlinear dynamics, under the assumption that the environment-dependent dynamics can be well captured with some shared representation. Our approach is motivated by robot control, where a robotic system encounters a sequence of new environmental conditions that it must quickly adapt to. A key emphasis is to integrate online representation learning with established methods from control theory, in order to arrive at a unified framework that yields both control-theoretic and learning-theoretic guarantees. We provide instantiations of our approach under varying conditions, leading to the first non-asymptotic end-to-end convergence guarantee for multi-task adaptive nonlinear control. OMAC can also be integrated with deep representation learning. Experiments show that OMAC significantly outperforms conventional adaptive control approaches which do not learn the shared representation.

A Regret Minimization Approach to Iterative Learning Control Machine Learning

We consider the setting of iterative learning control, or model-based policy learning in the presence of uncertain, time-varying dynamics. In this setting, we propose a new performance metric, planning regret, which replaces the standard stochastic uncertainty assumptions with worst case regret. Based on recent advances in non-stochastic control, we design a new iterative algorithm for minimizing planning regret that is more robust to model mismatch and uncertainty. We provide theoretical and empirical evidence that the proposed algorithm outperforms existing methods on several benchmarks.

Learning-based vs Model-free Adaptive Control of a MAV under Wind Gust Artificial Intelligence

Navigation problems under unknown varying conditions are among the most important and well-studied problems in the control field. Classic model-based adaptive control methods can be applied only when a convenient model of the plant or environment is provided. Recent model-free adaptive control methods aim at removing this dependency by learning the physical characteristics of the plant and/or process directly from sensor feedback. Although there have been prior attempts at improving these techniques, it remains an open question as to whether it is possible to cope with real-world uncertainties in a control system that is fully based on either paradigm. We propose a conceptually simple learning-based approach composed of a full state feedback controller, tuned robustly by a deep reinforcement learning framework based on the Soft Actor-Critic algorithm. We compare it, in realistic simulations, to a model-free controller that uses the same deep reinforcement learning framework for the control of a micro aerial vehicle under wind gust. The results indicate the great potential of learning-based adaptive control methods in modern dynamical systems.

Safe and Efficient Model-free Adaptive Control via Bayesian Optimization Artificial Intelligence

Adaptive control approaches yield high-performance controllers when a precise system model or suitable parametrizations of the controller are available. Existing data-driven approaches for adaptive control mostly augment standard model-based methods with additional information about uncertainties in the dynamics or about disturbances. In this work, we propose a purely data-driven, model-free approach for adaptive control. Tuning low-level controllers based solely on system data raises concerns on the underlying algorithm safety and computational performance. Thus, our approach builds on GoOSE, an algorithm for safe and sample-efficient Bayesian optimization. We introduce several computational and algorithmic modifications in GoOSE that enable its practical use on a rotational motion system. We numerically demonstrate for several types of disturbances that our approach is sample efficient, outperforms constrained Bayesian optimization in terms of safety, and achieves the performance optima computed by grid evaluation. We further demonstrate the proposed adaptive control approach experimentally on a rotational motion system.

Distributed Adaptive Control: An ideal Cognitive Architecture candidate for managing a robotic recycling plant Artificial Intelligence

In the past decade, society has experienced notable growth in a variety of technological areas. However, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has not been embraced yet. Industry 4.0 imposes several challenges which include the necessity of new architectural models to tackle the uncertainty that open environments represent to cyber-physical systems (CPS). Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) recycling plants stand for one of such open environments. Here, CPSs must work harmoniously in a changing environment, interacting with similar and not so similar CPSs, and adaptively collaborating with human workers. In this paper, we support the Distributed Adaptive Control (DAC) theory as a suitable Cognitive Architecture for managing a recycling plant. Specifically, a recursive implementation of DAC (between both singleagent and large-scale levels) is proposed to meet the expected demands of the European Project HR-Recycler. Additionally, with the aim of having a realistic benchmark for future implementations of the recursive DAC, a micro-recycling plant prototype is presented. Keywords: Cognitive Architecture, Distributed Adaptive Control, Recycling Plant, Navigation, Motor Control, Human-Robot Interaction.