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Natural Language Processing in-and-for Design Research

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We review the scholarly contributions that utilise Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods to support the design process. Using a heuristic approach, we collected 223 articles published in 32 journals and within the period 1991-present. We present state-of-the-art NLP in-and-for design research by reviewing these articles according to the type of natural language text sources: internal reports, design concepts, discourse transcripts, technical publications, consumer opinions, and others. Upon summarizing and identifying the gaps in these contributions, we utilise an existing design innovation framework to identify the applications that are currently being supported by NLP. We then propose a few methodological and theoretical directions for future NLP in-and-for design research.


Towards Math-Aware Automated Classification and Similarity Search of Scientific Publications: Methods of Mathematical Content Representations

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In this paper, we investigate mathematical content representations suitable for the automated classification of and the similarity search in STEM documents using standard machine learning algorithms: the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) and the Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI). The methods are evaluated on a subset of arXiv.org papers with the Mathematics Subject Classification (MSC) as a reference classification and using the standard precision/recall/F1-measure metrics. The results give insight into how different math representations may influence the performance of the classification and similarity search tasks in STEM repositories. Non-surprisingly, machine learning methods are able to grab distributional semantics from textual tokens. A proper selection of weighted tokens representing math may improve the quality of the results slightly. A structured math representation that imitates successful text-processing techniques with math is shown to yield better results than flat TeX tokens.


Lexico-semantic and affective modelling of Spanish poetry: A semi-supervised learning approach

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Text classification tasks have improved substantially during the last years by the usage of transformers. However, the majority of researches focus on prose texts, with poetry receiving less attention, specially for Spanish language. In this paper, we propose a semi-supervised learning approach for inferring 21 psychological categories evoked by a corpus of 4572 sonnets, along with 10 affective and lexico-semantic multiclass ones. The subset of poems used for training an evaluation includes 270 sonnets. With our approach, we achieve an AUC beyond 0.7 for 76% of the psychological categories, and an AUC over 0.65 for 60% on the multiclass ones. The sonnets are modelled using transformers, through sentence embeddings, along with lexico-semantic and affective features, obtained by using external lexicons. Consequently, we see that this approach provides an AUC increase of up to 0.12, as opposed to using transformers alone.


A Survey on Data Augmentation for Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Data augmentation, the artificial creation of training data for machine learning by transformations, is a widely studied research field across machine learning disciplines. While it is useful for increasing the generalization capabilities of a model, it can also address many other challenges and problems, from overcoming a limited amount of training data over regularizing the objective to limiting the amount data used to protect privacy. Based on a precise description of the goals and applications of data augmentation (C1) and a taxonomy for existing works (C2), this survey is concerned with data augmentation methods for textual classification and aims to achieve a concise and comprehensive overview for researchers and practitioners (C3). Derived from the taxonomy, we divided more than 100 methods into 12 different groupings and provide state-of-the-art references expounding which methods are highly promising (C4). Finally, research perspectives that may constitute a building block for future work are given (C5).


Neural Natural Language Processing for Unstructured Data in Electronic Health Records: a Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Electronic health records (EHRs), digital collections of patient healthcare events and observations, are ubiquitous in medicine and critical to healthcare delivery, operations, and research. Despite this central role, EHRs are notoriously difficult to process automatically. Well over half of the information stored within EHRs is in the form of unstructured text (e.g. provider notes, operation reports) and remains largely untapped for secondary use. Recently, however, newer neural network and deep learning approaches to Natural Language Processing (NLP) have made considerable advances, outperforming traditional statistical and rule-based systems on a variety of tasks. In this survey paper, we summarize current neural NLP methods for EHR applications. We focus on a broad scope of tasks, namely, classification and prediction, word embeddings, extraction, generation, and other topics such as question answering, phenotyping, knowledge graphs, medical dialogue, multilinguality, interpretability, etc.


Cooking Is All About People: Comment Classification On Cookery Channels Using BERT and Classification Models (Malayalam-English Mix-Code)

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The scope of a lucrative career promoted by Google through its video distribution platform YouTube has attracted a large number of users to become content creators. An important aspect of this line of work is the feedback received in the form of comments which show how well the content is being received by the audience. However, volume of comments coupled with spam and limited tools for comment classification makes it virtually impossible for a creator to go through each and every comment and gather constructive feedback. Automatic classification of comments is a challenge even for established classification models, since comments are often of variable lengths riddled with slang, symbols and abbreviations. This is a greater challenge where comments are multilingual as the messages are often rife with the respective vernacular. In this work, we have evaluated top-performing classification models for classifying comments which are a mix of different combinations of English and Malayalam (only English, only Malayalam and Mix of English and Malayalam). The statistical analysis of results indicates that Multinomial Naive Bayes, K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Random Forest and Decision Trees offer similar level of accuracy in comment classification. Further, we have also evaluated 3 multilingual transformer based language models (BERT, DISTILBERT and XLM) and compared their performance to the traditional machine learning classification techniques. XLM was the top-performing BERT model with an accuracy of 67.31. Random Forest with Term Frequency Vectorizer was the best performing model out of all the traditional classification models with an accuracy of 63.59.


Comparing BERT against traditional machine learning text classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The BERT model has arisen as a popular state-of-the-art machine learning model in the recent years that is able to cope with multiple NLP tasks such as supervised text classification without human supervision. Its flexibility to cope with any type of corpus delivering great results has make this approach very popular not only in academia but also in the industry. Although, there are lots of different approaches that have been used throughout the years with success. In this work, we first present BERT and include a little review on classical NLP approaches. Then, we empirically test with a suite of experiments dealing different scenarios the behaviour of BERT against the traditional TF-IDF vocabulary fed to machine learning algorithms. Our purpose of this work is to add empirical evidence to support or refuse the use of BERT as a default on NLP tasks. Experiments show the superiority of BERT and its independence of features of the NLP problem such as the language of the text adding empirical evidence to use BERT as a default technique to be used in NLP problems.


Word-Class Embeddings for Multiclass Text Classification

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Pre-trained word embeddings encode general word semantics and lexical regularities of natural language, and have proven useful across many NLP tasks, including word sense disambiguation, machine translation, and sentiment analysis, to name a few. In supervised tasks such as multiclass text classification (the focus of this article) it seems appealing to enhance word representations with ad-hoc embeddings that encode task-specific information. We propose (supervised) word-class embeddings (WCEs), and show that, when concatenated to (unsupervised) pre-trained word embeddings, they substantially facilitate the training of deep-learning models in multiclass classification by topic. We show empirical evidence that WCEs yield a consistent improvement in multiclass classification accuracy, using four popular neural architectures and six widely used and publicly available datasets for multiclass text classification. Our code that implements WCEs is publicly available at https://github.com/AlexMoreo/word-class-embeddings


Advances in Machine Learning for the Behavioral Sciences

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The areas of machine learning and knowledge discovery in databases have considerably matured in recent years. In this article, we briefly review recent developments as well as classical algorithms that stood the test of time. Our goal is to provide a general introduction into different tasks such as learning from tabular data, behavioral data, or textual data, with a particular focus on actual and potential applications in behavioral sciences. The supplemental appendix to the article also provides practical guidance for using the methods by pointing the reader to proven software implementations. The focus is on R, but we also cover some libraries in other programming languages as well as systems with easy-to-use graphical interfaces.


Machine Learning in Official Statistics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

On 10 October 2017, the development of a Digital Agenda of the Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Destatis) has started (Statistisches Bundesamt 2018). One of many topics that were intensively discussed was Machine Learning. In a meeting at 13-15 November 2017, the office and department heads of Destatis evaluated and prioritised 59 measures of the Digital Agenda according to their benefits and costs. A "Proof of Concept Machine Learning" was given high priority and classified as one of four lighthouse projects of the Digital Agenda. The content specification was "Proof of Concept Machine Learning - Set up Proof of Concept for Machine Learning, e.g. in business statistics, to perform automatic categorization and improve analysis potential". The deadline for completion of the project was set for mid-2018.