Artificial Intelligence (AI) is a fast-growing and evolving field, and data scientists with AI skills are in high demand. The field requires broad training involving principles of computer science, cognitive psychology, and engineering. If you want to grow your data scientist career and capitalize on the demand for the role, you might consider getting a graduate degree in AI. U.S. News & World Report ranks the best AI graduate programs at computer science schools based on surveys sent to academic officials in fall 2021 and early 2022. Here are the top 10 programs that made the list as having the best AI graduate programs in the US.
Click here to join the seminar. Research on machine learning (ML) algorithms, as well as on their ethical impacts, has focused largely on mathematical or computational questions. However, for algorithmic systems to be useful, reliable, and safe for human users, ML research must also wrangle with how users' psychology and social context affect how they interact with algorithms. This talk will address how novel research on how people interact with ML systems can benefit from decades-old ideas in social science. The first part of the talk will address how well-worn ideas from psychology and behavioral research methods can inform how ML researchers develop and evaluate algorithmic systems.
Sim2real transfer is primarily concerned with transferring policies trained in simulation to potentially noisy real world environments. A common problem associated with sim2real transfer is estimating the real-world environmental parameters to ground the simulated environment to. Although existing methods such as Domain Randomisation (DR) can produce robust policies by sampling from a distribution of parameters during training, there is no established method for identifying the parameters of the corresponding distribution for a given real-world setting. In this work, we propose Uncertainty-aware policy search (UncAPS), where we use Universal Policy Network (UPN) to store simulation-trained task-specific policies across the full range of environmental parameters and then subsequently employ robust Bayesian optimisation to craft robust policies for the given environment by combining relevant UPN policies in a DR like fashion. Such policy-driven grounding is expected to be more efficient as it estimates only task-relevant sets of parameters. Further, we also account for the estimation uncertainties in the search process to produce policies that are robust against both aleatoric and epistemic uncertainties. We empirically evaluate our approach in a range of noisy, continuous control environments, and show its improved performance compared to competing baselines.
Model selection is an important problem of cost-sensitive SVM (CS-SVM). Although using solution path to find global optimal parameters is a powerful method for model selection, it is a challenge to extend the framework to solve two regularization parameters of CS-SVM simultaneously. To overcome this challenge, we make three main steps in this paper.
Real-Time Strategy games have become a popular test-bed for modern AI system due to their real-time computational constraints, complex multi-unit control problems, and imperfect information. One of the most important aspects of any RTS AI system is the efficient control of units in complex combat scenarios, also known as micromanagement. Recently, a model-based heuristic search technique called Portfolio Greedy Search (PGS) has shown promisingpaper we present the first integration of PGS into the StarCraft game engine, and compare its performance to the current state-of-the-art deep reinforcement learning method in several benchmark combat scenarios. We then perform theperformance for providing real-time decision making in RTS combat scenarios, but has so far only been tested in SparCraft: an RTS combat simulator. In this same experiments within the SparCraft simulator in order to investigate any differences between PGS performance in the simulator and in the actual game. Lastly, we investigate how varying parameters of the SparCraft simulator affect the performance of PGS in the StarCraft game engine. We demonstrate that the performance of PGS relies heavily on the accuracy of the underlying model, outperforming other techniques only for scenarios where the SparCraft simulation model more accurately matches the StarCraft game engine.
Digitization is penetrating more and more areas of life. Tasks are increasingly being completed digitally, and are therefore not only fulfilled faster, more efficiently but also more purposefully and successfully. The rapid developments in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years have played a major role in this, as they brought up many helpful approaches to build on. At the same time, the eyes, their movements, and the meaning of these movements are being progressively researched. The combination of these developments has led to exciting approaches. In this dissertation, I present some of these approaches which I worked on during my Ph.D. First, I provide insight into the development of models that use artificial intelligence to connect eye movements with visual expertise. This is demonstrated for two domains or rather groups of people: athletes in decision-making actions and surgeons in arthroscopic procedures. The resulting models can be considered as digital diagnostic models for automatic expertise recognition. Furthermore, I show approaches that investigate the transferability of eye movement patterns to different expertise domains and subsequently, important aspects of techniques for generalization. Finally, I address the temporal detection of confusion based on eye movement data. The results suggest the use of the resulting model as a clock signal for possible digital assistance options in the training of young professionals. An interesting aspect of my research is that I was able to draw on very valuable data from DFB youth elite athletes as well as on long-standing experts in arthroscopy. In particular, the work with the DFB data attracted the interest of radio and print media, namely DeutschlandFunk Nova and SWR DasDing. All resulting articles presented here have been published in internationally renowned journals or at conferences.
Abstract--Classifier specific (CS) and classifier agnostic (CA) feature importance methods are widely used (often interchangeably) by prior studies to derive feature importance ranks from a defect classifier. However, different feature importance methods are likely to compute different feature importance ranks even for the same dataset and classifier. Hence such interchangeable use of feature importance methods can lead to conclusion instabilities unless there is a strong agreement among different methods. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate the agreement between the feature importance ranks associated with the studied classifiers through a case study of 18 software projects and six commonly used classifiers. We find that: 1) The computed feature importance ranks by CA and CS methods do not always strongly agree with each other. Such findings raise concerns about the stability of conclusions across replicated studies. We further observe that the commonly used defect datasets are rife with feature interactions and these feature interactions impact the computed feature importance ranks of the CS methods (not the CA methods). We demonstrate that removing these feature interactions, even with simple methods like CFS improves agreement between the computed feature importance ranks of CA and CS methods. In light of our findings, we provide guidelines for stakeholders and practitioners when performing model interpretation and directions for future research, e.g., future research is needed to investigate the impact of advanced feature interaction removal methods on computed feature importance ranks of different CS methods. We note, however, that a CS method is not always readily available for Defect classifiers are widely used by many large software corporations a given classifier. Defect classifiers are commonly and deep neural networks do not have a widely accepted CS interpreted to uncover insights to improve software quality. Therefore it is the feature importance ranks of different classifiers is pivotal that these generated insights are reliable. Such CA methods measure the contribution of each feature a feature importance method to compute a ranking of feature towards a classifier's predictions. These measure the contribution of each feature by effecting changes to feature importance ranks reflect the order in which the studied that particular feature in the dataset and observing its impact on features contribute to the predictive capability of the studied the outcome. The primary advantage of CA methods is that they classifier .
Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.
Due to the fast pace of life and online communications, the prevalence of English and the QWERTY keyboard, people tend to forgo using diacritics, make typographical errors (typos) when typing. Restoring diacritics and correcting spelling is important for proper language use and disambiguation of texts for both humans and downstream algorithms. However, both of these problems are typically addressed separately, i.e., state-of-the-art diacritics restoration methods do not tolerate other typos. In this work, we tackle both problems at once by employing newly-developed ByT5 byte-level transformer models. Our simultaneous diacritics restoration and typos correction approach demonstrates near state-of-the-art performance in 13 languages, reaching >96% of the alpha-word accuracy. We also perform diacritics restoration alone on 12 benchmark datasets with the additional one for the Lithuanian language. The experimental investigation proves that our approach is able to achieve comparable results (>98%) to previously reported despite being trained on fewer data. Our approach is also able to restore diacritics in words not seen during training with >76% accuracy. We also show the accuracies to further improve with longer training. All this shows a great real-world application potential of our suggested methods to more data, languages, and error classes.
Reasoning about uncertainty is vital in many real-life autonomous systems. However, current state-of-the-art planning algorithms cannot either reason about uncertainty explicitly, or do so with a high computational burden. Here, we focus on making informed decisions efficiently, using reward functions that explicitly deal with uncertainty. We formulate an approximation, namely an abstract observation model, that uses an aggregation scheme to alleviate computational costs. We derive bounds on the expected information-theoretic reward function and, as a consequence, on the value function. We then propose a method to refine aggregation to achieve identical action selection with a fraction of the computational time.