Abstract: Numerical simulations can help solve complex problems. Most of these algorithms are massively parallel and thus good candidates for FPGA acceleration thanks to spatial parallelism. Modern FPGA devices can leverage high-bandwidth memory technologies, but when applications are memory-bound designers must craft advanced communication and memory architectures for efficient data movement and on-chip storage. This development process requires hardware design skills that are uncommon in domain-specific experts. In this paper, we propose an automated tool flow from a domain-specific language (DSL) for tensor expressions to generate massively-parallel accelerators on HBM-equipped FPGAs.
Occupant behavior (OB) and in particular window openings need to be considered in building performance simulation (BPS), in order to realistically model the indoor climate and energy consumption for heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). However, the proposed OB window opening models are often biased towards the over-represented class where windows remained closed. In addition, they require tuning for each occupant which can not be efficiently scaled to the increased number of occupants. This paper presents a window opening model for commercial buildings using deep learning methods. The model is trained using data from occupants from an office building in Germany. In total the model is evaluated using almost 20 mio. data points from 3 independent buildings, located in Aachen, Frankfurt and Philadelphia. Eventually, the results of 3100 core hours of model development are summarized, which makes this study the largest of its kind in window states modeling. Additionally, the practical potential of the proposed model was tested by incorporating it in the Modelica-based thermal building simulation. The resulting evaluation accuracy and F1 scores on the office buildings ranged between 86-89 % and 0.53-0.65 respectively. The performance dropped around 15 % points in case of sparse input data, while the F1 score remained high.