Abstract: Numerical simulations can help solve complex problems. Most of these algorithms are massively parallel and thus good candidates for FPGA acceleration thanks to spatial parallelism. Modern FPGA devices can leverage high-bandwidth memory technologies, but when applications are memory-bound designers must craft advanced communication and memory architectures for efficient data movement and on-chip storage. This development process requires hardware design skills that are uncommon in domain-specific experts. In this paper, we propose an automated tool flow from a domain-specific language (DSL) for tensor expressions to generate massively-parallel accelerators on HBM-equipped FPGAs.
Saidani, Michael, Kim, Harrison, Yannou, Bernard
The increasing number of product reviews posted online is a gold mine for designers to know better about the products they develop, by capturing the voice of customers, and to improve these products accordingly. In the meantime, product design and development have an essential role in creating a more sustainable future. With the recent advance of artificial intelligence techniques in the field of natural language processing, this research aims to develop an integrated machine learning solution to obtain sustainable design insights from online product reviews automatically. In this paper, the opportunities and challenges offered by existing frameworks - including Python libraries, packages, as well as state-of-the-art algorithms like BERT - are discussed, illustrated, and positioned along an ad hoc machine learning process. This contribution discusses the opportunities to reach and the challenges to address for building a machine learning pipeline, in order to get insights from product reviews to design more sustainable products, including the five following stages, from the identification of sustainability-related reviews to the interpretation of sustainable design leads: data collection, data formatting, model training, model evaluation, and model deployment. Examples of sustainable design insights that can be produced out of product review mining and processing are given. Finally, promising lines for future research in the field are provided, including case studies putting in parallel standard products with their sustainable alternatives, to compare the features valued by customers and to generate in fine relevant sustainable design leads.
Schäfer, Karl-Herbert, Quint, Franz
The TriRhenaTech alliance presents the accepted papers of the 'Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium' held on October 27th 2021 in Kaiserslautern, Germany. Topics of the conference are applications of Artificial Intellgence in life sciences, intelligent systems, industry 4.0, mobility and others. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper-Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, Offenburg and Trier, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.
Siddharth, L, Blessing, Lucienne T. M., Luo, Jianxi
We review the scholarly contributions that utilise Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods to support the design process. Using a heuristic approach, we collected 223 articles published in 32 journals and within the period 1991-present. We present state-of-the-art NLP in-and-for design research by reviewing these articles according to the type of natural language text sources: internal reports, design concepts, discourse transcripts, technical publications, consumer opinions, and others. Upon summarizing and identifying the gaps in these contributions, we utilise an existing design innovation framework to identify the applications that are currently being supported by NLP. We then propose a few methodological and theoretical directions for future NLP in-and-for design research.
Mao, Jianqiao, Ryan, Grammenos
An ensuing challenge in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the perceived difficulty in interpreting sophisticated machine learning models, whose ever-increasing complexity makes it hard for such models to be understood, trusted and thus accepted by human beings. The lack, if not complete absence, of interpretability for these so-called black-box models can lead to serious economic and ethical consequences, thereby hindering the development and deployment of AI in wider fields, particularly in those involving critical and regulatory applications. Yet, the building services industry is a highly-regulated domain requiring transparency and decision-making processes that can be understood and trusted by humans. To this end, the design and implementation of autonomous Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning systems for the automatic but concurrently interpretable optimisation of energy efficiency and room thermal comfort is of topical interest. This work therefore presents an interpretable machine learning model aimed at predicting room temperature in non-domestic buildings, for the purpose of optimising the use of the installed HVAC system. We demonstrate experimentally that the proposed model can accurately forecast room temperatures eight hours ahead in real-time by taking into account historical RT information, as well as additional environmental and time-series features. In this paper, an enhanced feature engineering process is conducted based on the Exploratory Data Analysis results. Furthermore, beyond the commonly used Interpretable Machine Learning techniques, we propose a Permutation Feature-based Frequency Response Analysis (PF-FRA) method for quantifying the contributions of the different predictors in the frequency domain. Based on the generated reason codes, we find that the historical RT feature is the dominant factor that has most impact on the model prediction.
Last month aec tech invited industry-leading design technologists, data scientists, and machine learning (ML) experts to discuss the applications of machine learning and artificial intelligence in architecture, engineering and construction (AEC) today and towards the future. Machine learning is a branch of AI -- artificial intelligence -- that focuses on using data and algorithms to mimic human learning and improve its accuracy over time. Read below to learn more about our speakers and their work, in addition to a summary of the discussion. Leland Curtis is the former Co-Lead of Computational Design at SmithGroup. Leland implements Machine Learning into his design process through one application of ML called surrogate modeling.
Xiang, Yusheng, Liu, Kailun, Su, Tianqing, Li, Jun, Ouyang, Shirui, Mao, Samuel S., Geimer, Marcus
Multi working-machines pathfinding solution enables more mobile machines simultaneously to work inside of a working site so that the productivity can be expected to increase evolutionary. To date, the potential cooperation conflicts among construction machinery limit the amount of construction machinery investment in a concrete working site. To solve the cooperation problem, civil engineers optimize the working site from a logistic perspective while computer scientists improve pathfinding algorithms' performance on the given benchmark maps. In the practical implementation of a construction site, it is sensible to solve the problem with a hybrid solution; therefore, in our study, we proposed an algorithm based on a cutting-edge multi-pathfinding algorithm to enable the massive number of machines cooperation and offer the advice to modify the unreasonable part of the working site in the meantime. Using the logistic information from BIM, such as unloading and loading point, we added a pathfinding solution for multi machines to improve the whole construction fleet's productivity. In the previous study, the experiments were limited to no more than ten participants, and the computational time to gather the solution was not given; thus, we publish our pseudo-code, our tested map, and benchmark our results. Our algorithm's most extensive feature is that it can quickly replan the path to overcome the emergency on a construction site.
Markovic, Romana, Grintal, Eva, Wölki, Daniel, Frisch, Jérôme, van Treeck, Christoph
Occupant behavior (OB) and in particular window openings need to be considered in building performance simulation (BPS), in order to realistically model the indoor climate and energy consumption for heating ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC). However, the proposed OB window opening models are often biased towards the over-represented class where windows remained closed. In addition, they require tuning for each occupant which can not be efficiently scaled to the increased number of occupants. This paper presents a window opening model for commercial buildings using deep learning methods. The model is trained using data from occupants from an office building in Germany. In total the model is evaluated using almost 20 mio. data points from 3 independent buildings, located in Aachen, Frankfurt and Philadelphia. Eventually, the results of 3100 core hours of model development are summarized, which makes this study the largest of its kind in window states modeling. Additionally, the practical potential of the proposed model was tested by incorporating it in the Modelica-based thermal building simulation. The resulting evaluation accuracy and F1 scores on the office buildings ranged between 86-89 % and 0.53-0.65 respectively. The performance dropped around 15 % points in case of sparse input data, while the F1 score remained high.