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What Is Artificial Intelligence? - ExtremeTech

#artificialintelligence

To many, AI is just a horrible Steven Spielberg movie. But what is artificial intelligence, exactly? The answer depends on who you ask. Broadly, artificial intelligence (AI) is the combination of computer science and robust datasets, deployed to solve some kind of problem. Many definitions of artificial intelligence include a comparison to the human mind or brain, whether in form or function. Alan Turing wrote in 1950 about "thinking machines" that could respond to a problem using human-like reasoning.


Can AI Emulate Human Creativity?

#artificialintelligence

If you work out of an office, you know that the coffee machine is the favorite spot in the office to hang out or have conversations at. From giving us the first cup of the day to keeping us awake for late-night meetings, that machine is a lifesaver. But just for a day, try not getting your coffee from the coffee machine. Don't skip coffee entirely, but instead, go out to your local coffee shop that doesn't use coffee machines or make yourself a flask at home. You will realize that hand-made coffee is inherently better than the one that is made from a machine.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


Using Synthetic Voice to Expand the Scale and Reach of Content

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Content in English has dominated the entertainment industry for decades. But as technology advances globalization, content creators will have to start thinking about how they can service their content in other languages. In doing so, they'll be able to not only become more inclusive of different audiences but help them scale their reach across regions without jeopardizing the entertainment value of their content. It's for that very reason why many have shied away from translating their audio-based content. Whether for TV, movies, or even podcasts, translating audio and video content in the past meant forfeiting the unique voices of the program who typically only speak English.


DiscASP: A Graph-based ASP System for Finding Relevant Consistent Concepts with Applications to Conversational Socialbots

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We consider the problem of finding relevant consistent concepts in a conversational AI system, particularly, for realizing a conversational socialbot. Commonsense knowledge about various topics can be represented as an answer set program. However, to advance the conversation, we need to solve the problem of finding relevant consistent concepts, i.e., find consistent knowledge in the "neighborhood" of the current topic being discussed that can be used to advance the conversation. Traditional ASP solvers will generate the whole answer set which is stripped of all the associations between the various atoms (concepts) and thus cannot be used to find relevant consistent concepts. Similarly, goal-directed implementations of ASP will only find concepts directly relevant to a query. We present the DiscASP system that will find the partial consistent model that is relevant to a given topic in a manner similar to how a human will find it. DiscASP is based on a novel graph-based algorithm for finding stable models of an answer set program. We present the DiscASP algorithm, its implementation, and its application to developing a conversational socialbot.


The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.


114 Milestones In The History Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

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In an expanded edition published in 1988, they responded to claims that their 1969 conclusions significantly reduced funding for neural network research: "Our version is that progress had already come to a virtual halt because of the lack of adequate basic theories… by the mid-1960s there had been a great many experiments with perceptrons, but no one had been able to explain why they were able to recognize certain kinds of patterns and not others."


114 Milestones In The History Of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

#artificialintelligence

In an expanded edition published in 1988, they responded to claims that their 1969 conclusions significantly reduced funding for neural network research: "Our version is that progress had already come to a virtual halt because of the lack of adequate basic theories… by the mid-1960s there had been a great many experiments with perceptrons, but no one had been able to explain why they were able to recognize certain kinds of patterns and not others."


Action in Mind: A Neural Network Approach to Action Recognition and Segmentation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Recognizing and categorizing human actions is an important task with applications in various fields such as human-robot interaction, video analysis, surveillance, video retrieval, health care system and entertainment industry. This thesis presents a novel computational approach for human action recognition through different implementations of multi-layer architectures based on artificial neural networks. Each system level development is designed to solve different aspects of the action recognition problem including online real-time processing, action segmentation and the involvement of objects. The analysis of the experimental results are illustrated and described in six articles. The proposed action recognition architecture of this thesis is composed of several processing layers including a preprocessing layer, an ordered vector representation layer and three layers of neural networks. It utilizes self-organizing neural networks such as Kohonen feature maps and growing grids as the main neural network layers. Thus the architecture presents a biological plausible approach with certain features such as topographic organization of the neurons, lateral interactions, semi-supervised learning and the ability to represent high dimensional input space in lower dimensional maps. For each level of development the system is trained with the input data consisting of consecutive 3D body postures and tested with generalized input data that the system has never met before. The experimental results of different system level developments show that the system performs well with quite high accuracy for recognizing human actions.


Linguistic calibration through metacognition: aligning dialogue agent responses with expected correctness

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Open-domain dialogue agents have vastly improved, but still confidently hallucinate knowledge or express doubt when asked straightforward questions. In this work, we analyze whether state-of-the-art chit-chat models can express metacognition capabilities through their responses: does a verbalized expression of doubt (or confidence) match the likelihood that the model's answer is incorrect (or correct)? We find that these models are poorly calibrated in this sense, yet we show that the representations within the models can be used to accurately predict likelihood of correctness. By incorporating these correctness predictions into the training of a controllable generation model, we obtain a dialogue agent with greatly improved linguistic calibration.