Collaborating Authors




Many noninterpretive artificial intelligence applications with the potential to improve multiple aspects of radiology practice, including workflow, efficiency, image acquisition, reporting, billing, and education, are either currently available or in development. Artificial intelligence (AI) models to improve workflow efficiency and safety include automated clinical decision support, study protocoling, examination scheduling, and worklist prioritization. Models to improve image acquisition focus on patient positioning, multimodal image registration, dose reduction, noise reduction, and artifact reduction. Models to improve reporting include automatic finding categorization using classification systems (eg, Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System, Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System), provider notification of incidental findings, and closing the loop on patient follow-up. Business applications include automated billing and coding, obtaining preauthorization, and optimization of performance on quality measures to increase reimbursement. Use of AI in resident education is somewhat controversial, but AI can be used to help flag high-risk cases for faster review by an attending physician, customize teaching files based on residents' needs, and help improve resident reporting. The radiology community has had a leading role in exploring medical applications of artificial intelligence (AI), and one of the primary drivers for this is the desire for increased accuracy and efficiency in clinical care. Radiologist responsibilities extend beyond image interpretation. AI tools have the potential to improve essential tasks in the imaging value chain, from image acquisition to generating and disseminating radiology reports (1). These applications are crucial in current medical environments with increasing workloads, increasing scan complexity, and the need to decrease costs and reduce errors (2–4).

Stop Oversampling for Class Imbalance Learning: A Critical Review Artificial Intelligence

For the last two decades, oversampling has been employed to overcome the challenge of learning from imbalanced datasets. Many approaches to solving this challenge have been offered in the literature. Oversampling, on the other hand, is a concern. That is, models trained on fictitious data may fail spectacularly when put to real-world problems. The fundamental difficulty with oversampling approaches is that, given a real-life population, the synthesized samples may not truly belong to the minority class. As a result, training a classifier on these samples while pretending they represent minority may result in incorrect predictions when the model is used in the real world. We analyzed a large number of oversampling methods in this paper and devised a new oversampling evaluation system based on hiding a number of majority examples and comparing them to those generated by the oversampling process. Based on our evaluation system, we ranked all these methods based on their incorrectly generated examples for comparison. Our experiments using more than 70 oversampling methods and three imbalanced real-world datasets reveal that all oversampling methods studied generate minority samples that are most likely to be majority. Given data and methods in hand, we argue that oversampling in its current forms and methodologies is unreliable for learning from class imbalanced data and should be avoided in real-world applications.

Improving Specificity in Mammography Using Cross-correlation between Wavelet and Fourier Transform Artificial Intelligence

Breast cancer is in the most common malignant tumor in women. It accounted for 30% of new malignant tumor cases. Although the incidence of breast cancer remains high around the world, the mortality rate has been continuously reduced. This is mainly due to recent developments in molecular biology technology and improved level of comprehensive diagnosis and standard treatment. Early detection by mammography is an integral part of that. The most common breast abnormalities that may indicate breast cancer are masses and calcifications. Previous detection approaches usually obtain relatively high sensitivity but unsatisfactory specificity. We will investigate an approach that applies the discrete wavelet transform and Fourier transform to parse the images and extracts statistical features that characterize an image's content, such as the mean intensity and the skewness of the intensity. A naive Bayesian classifier uses these features to classify the images. We expect to achieve an optimal high specificity.

Benchmarking Robustness of 3D Point Cloud Recognition Against Common Corruptions Artificial Intelligence

Deep neural networks on 3D point cloud data have been widely used in the real world, especially in safety-critical applications. However, their robustness against corruptions is less studied. In this paper, we present ModelNet40-C, the first comprehensive benchmark on 3D point cloud corruption robustness, consisting of 15 common and realistic corruptions. Our evaluation shows a significant gap between the performances on ModelNet40 and ModelNet40-C for state-of-the-art (SOTA) models. To reduce the gap, we propose a simple but effective method by combining PointCutMix-R and TENT after evaluating a wide range of augmentation and test-time adaptation strategies. We identify a number of critical insights for future studies on corruption robustness in point cloud recognition. For instance, we unveil that Transformer-based architectures with proper training recipes achieve the strongest robustness. We hope our in-depth analysis will motivate the development of robust training strategies or architecture designs in the 3D point cloud domain. Our codebase and dataset are included in

Google AI Introduces 'StylEx': A New Approach For A Visual Explanation Of Classifiers


Neural networks are capable of completing a wide range of tasks. Understanding how they arrive at their decisions, on the other hand, is frequently a mystery that goes unexplored. Explaining a neural model's decision process could have a significant social impact in domains where human oversight is crucial, like medical image processing and autonomous driving. These revelations could be instrumental in advising healthcare practitioners and possibly enhancing scientific breakthroughs. For a visual explanation of classifiers, there have been approaches such as attention maps.

Beyond Visual Image: Automated Diagnosis of Pigmented Skin Lesions Combining Clinical Image Features with Patient Data Artificial Intelligence

Among the most common types of skin cancer are basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma. According to the who (2018), currently, between 2 and 3 million non-melanoma skin cancers and 132.000 melanoma skin cancer occur every year in the world. Melanoma is by far the most dangerous form of skin cancer, causing more than 75% of all skin cancer deaths (Allen, 2016). Early diagnosis of the disease plays an important role in reducing the mortality rate with a chance of cure greater than 90% (SBD, 2018). The diagnosis of pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) can be made by invasive and non-invasive methods. One of the most common non-invasive methods was presented by Soyer et al. (1987). The method allows the visualization of morphological structures not visible to the naked eye with the use of an instrument called dermatoscope. When compared to the clinical diagnosis, the use of dermatoscope by experts makes the diagnosis of PSLs easier, increasing by 10-27% the diagnostic sensitivity (Mayer et al., 1997).

Graph Neural Networks: a bibliometrics overview Artificial Intelligence

Recently, graph neural networks have become a hot topic in machine learning community. This paper presents a Scopus based bibliometric overview of the GNNs research since 2004, when GNN papers were first published. The study aims to evaluate GNN research trend, both quantitatively and qualitatively. We provide the trend of research, distribution of subjects, active and influential authors and institutions, sources of publications, most cited documents, and hot topics. Our investigations reveal that the most frequent subject categories in this field are computer science, engineering, telecommunications, linguistics, operations research and management science, information science and library science, business and economics, automation and control systems, robotics, and social sciences. In addition, the most active source of GNN publications is Lecture Notes in Computer Science. The most prolific or impactful institutions are found in the United States, China, and Canada. We also provide must read papers and future directions. Finally, the application of graph convolutional networks and attention mechanism are now among hot topics of GNN research.

Multimodal Classification: Current Landscape, Taxonomy and Future Directions Artificial Intelligence

Multimodal classification research has been gaining popularity in many domains that collect more data from multiple sources including satellite imagery, biometrics, and medicine. However, the lack of consistent terminology and architectural descriptions makes it difficult to compare different existing solutions. We address these challenges by proposing a new taxonomy for describing such systems based on trends found in recent publications on multimodal classification. Many of the most difficult aspects of unimodal classification have not yet been fully addressed for multimodal datasets including big data, class imbalance, and instance level difficulty. We also provide a discussion of these challenges and future directions.

A Review on Edge Analytics: Issues, Challenges, Opportunities, Promises, Future Directions, and Applications Artificial Intelligence

Edge technology aims to bring Cloud resources (specifically, the compute, storage, and network) to the closed proximity of the Edge devices, i.e., smart devices where the data are produced and consumed. Embedding computing and application in Edge devices lead to emerging of two new concepts in Edge technology, namely, Edge computing and Edge analytics. Edge analytics uses some techniques or algorithms to analyze the data generated by the Edge devices. With the emerging of Edge analytics, the Edge devices have become a complete set. Currently, Edge analytics is unable to provide full support for the execution of the analytic techniques. The Edge devices cannot execute advanced and sophisticated analytic algorithms following various constraints such as limited power supply, small memory size, limited resources, etc. This article aims to provide a detailed discussion on Edge analytics. A clear explanation to distinguish between the three concepts of Edge technology, namely, Edge devices, Edge computing, and Edge analytics, along with their issues. Furthermore, the article discusses the implementation of Edge analytics to solve many problems in various areas such as retail, agriculture, industry, and healthcare. In addition, the research papers of the state-of-the-art edge analytics are rigorously reviewed in this article to explore the existing issues, emerging challenges, research opportunities and their directions, and applications.

The AI Index 2021 Annual Report Artificial Intelligence

Welcome to the fourth edition of the AI Index Report. This year we significantly expanded the amount of data available in the report, worked with a broader set of external organizations to calibrate our data, and deepened our connections with the Stanford Institute for Human-Centered Artificial Intelligence (HAI). The AI Index Report tracks, collates, distills, and visualizes data related to artificial intelligence. Its mission is to provide unbiased, rigorously vetted, and globally sourced data for policymakers, researchers, executives, journalists, and the general public to develop intuitions about the complex field of AI. The report aims to be the most credible and authoritative source for data and insights about AI in the world.