Digitization is penetrating more and more areas of life. Tasks are increasingly being completed digitally, and are therefore not only fulfilled faster, more efficiently but also more purposefully and successfully. The rapid developments in the field of artificial intelligence in recent years have played a major role in this, as they brought up many helpful approaches to build on. At the same time, the eyes, their movements, and the meaning of these movements are being progressively researched. The combination of these developments has led to exciting approaches. In this dissertation, I present some of these approaches which I worked on during my Ph.D. First, I provide insight into the development of models that use artificial intelligence to connect eye movements with visual expertise. This is demonstrated for two domains or rather groups of people: athletes in decision-making actions and surgeons in arthroscopic procedures. The resulting models can be considered as digital diagnostic models for automatic expertise recognition. Furthermore, I show approaches that investigate the transferability of eye movement patterns to different expertise domains and subsequently, important aspects of techniques for generalization. Finally, I address the temporal detection of confusion based on eye movement data. The results suggest the use of the resulting model as a clock signal for possible digital assistance options in the training of young professionals. An interesting aspect of my research is that I was able to draw on very valuable data from DFB youth elite athletes as well as on long-standing experts in arthroscopy. In particular, the work with the DFB data attracted the interest of radio and print media, namely DeutschlandFunk Nova and SWR DasDing. All resulting articles presented here have been published in internationally renowned journals or at conferences.
In this chapter, we provide a review of conversational agents (CAs), discussing chatbots, intended for casual conversation with a user, as well as task-oriented agents that generally engage in discussions intended to reach one or several specific goals, often (but not always) within a specific domain. We also consider the concept of embodied conversational agents, briefly reviewing aspects such as character animation and speech processing. The many different approaches for representing dialogue in CAs are discussed in some detail, along with methods for evaluating such agents, emphasizing the important topics of accountability and interpretability. A brief historical overview is given, followed by an extensive overview of various applications, especially in the fields of health and education. We end the chapter by discussing benefits and potential risks regarding the societal impact of current and future CA technology.
In this paper we present AIDA, which is an active inference-based agent that iteratively designs a personalized audio processing algorithm through situated interactions with a human client. The target application of AIDA is to propose on-the-spot the most interesting alternative values for the tuning parameters of a hearing aid (HA) algorithm, whenever a HA client is not satisfied with their HA performance. AIDA interprets searching for the "most interesting alternative" as an issue of optimal (acoustic) context-aware Bayesian trial design. In computational terms, AIDA is realized as an active inference-based agent with an Expected Free Energy criterion for trial design. This type of architecture is inspired by neuro-economic models on efficient (Bayesian) trial design in brains and implies that AIDA comprises generative probabilistic models for acoustic signals and user responses. We propose a novel generative model for acoustic signals as a sum of time-varying auto-regressive filters and a user response model based on a Gaussian Process Classifier. The full AIDA agent has been implemented in a factor graph for the generative model and all tasks (parameter learning, acoustic context classification, trial design, etc.) are realized by variational message passing on the factor graph. All verification and validation experiments and demonstrations are freely accessible at our GitHub repository.
The purpose of the paper is to provide innovative emerging technology framework for community to combat epidemic situations. The paper proposes a unique outbreak response system framework based on artificial intelligence and edge computing for citizen centric services to help track and trace people eluding safety policies like mask detection and social distancing measure in public or workplace setup. The framework further provides implementation guideline in industrial setup as well for governance and contact tracing tasks. The adoption will thus lead in smart city planning and development focusing on citizen health systems contributing to improved quality of life. The conceptual framework presented is validated through quantitative data analysis via secondary data collection from researcher's public websites, GitHub repositories and renowned journals and further benchmarking were conducted for experimental results in Microsoft Azure cloud environment. The study includes selective AI-models for benchmark analysis and were assessed on performance and accuracy in edge computing environment for large scale societal setup. Overall YOLO model Outperforms in object detection task and is faster enough for mask detection and HRNetV2 outperform semantic segmentation problem applied to solve social distancing task in AI-Edge inferencing environmental setup. The paper proposes new Edge-AI algorithm for building technology-oriented solutions for detecting mask in human movement and social distance. The paper enriches the technological advancement in artificial intelligence and edge-computing applied to problems in society and healthcare systems. The framework further equips government agency, system providers to design and constructs technology-oriented models in community setup to Increase the quality of life using emerging technologies into smart urban environments.
We study a pricing setting where each customer is offered a contextualized price based on customer and/or product features that are predictive of the customer's valuation for that product. Often only historical sales records are available, where we observe whether each customer purchased a product at the price prescribed rather than the customer's true valuation. As such, the data is influenced by the historical sales policy which introduces difficulties in a) estimating future loss/regret for pricing policies without the possibility of conducting real experiments and b) optimizing new policies for downstream tasks such as revenue management. We study how to formulate loss functions which can be used for optimizing pricing policies directly, rather than going through an intermediate demand estimation stage, which can be biased in practice due to model misspecification, regularization or poor calibration. While existing approaches have been proposed when valuation data is available, we propose loss functions for the observational data setting. To achieve this, we adapt ideas from machine learning with corrupted labels, where we can consider each observed customer's outcome (purchased or not for a prescribed price), as a (known) probabilistic transformation of the customer's valuation. From this transformation we derive a class of suitable unbiased loss functions. Within this class we identify minimum variance estimators, those which are robust to poor demand function estimation, and provide guidance on when the estimated demand function is useful. Furthermore, we also show that when applied to our contextual pricing setting, estimators popular in the off-policy evaluation literature fall within this class of loss functions, and also offer managerial insights on when each estimator is likely to perform well in practice.
It is well understood that an individual's health trajectory is influenced by choices made in each moment, such as from lifestyle or medical decisions. With the advent of modern sensing technologies, individuals have more data and information about themselves than any other time in history. How can we use this data to make the best decisions to keep the health state optimal? We propose a generalized Personal Health Navigation (PHN) framework. PHN takes individuals towards their personal health goals through a system which perpetually digests data streams, estimates current health status, computes the best route through intermediate states utilizing personal models, and guides the best inputs that carry a user towards their goal. In addition to describing the general framework, we test the PHN system in two experiments within the field of cardiology. First, we prospectively test a knowledge-infused cardiovascular PHN system with a pilot clinical trial of 41 users. Second, we build a data-driven personalized model on cardiovascular exercise response variability on a smartwatch data-set of 33,269 real-world users. We conclude with critical challenges in health computing for PHN systems that require deep future investigation.
Modern deep learning holds a great potential to transform clinical practice on human sleep. Teaching a machine to carry out routine tasks would be a tremendous reduction in workload for clinicians. Sleep staging, a fundamental step in sleep practice, is a suitable task for this and will be the focus in this article. Recently, automatic sleep staging systems have been trained to mimic manual scoring, leading to similar performance to human sleep experts, at least on scoring of healthy subjects. Despite tremendous progress, we have not seen automatic sleep scoring adopted widely in clinical environments. This review aims to give a shared view of the authors on the most recent state-of-the-art development in automatic sleep staging, the challenges that still need to be addressed, and the future directions for automatic sleep scoring to achieve clinical value.
Unmeasured confounding is a threat to causal inference and gives rise to biased estimates. In this article, we consider the problem of individualized decision-making under partial identification. Firstly, we argue that when faced with unmeasured confounding, one should pursue individualized decision-making using partial identification in a comprehensive manner. We establish a formal link between individualized decision-making under partial identification and classical decision theory by considering a lower bound perspective of value/utility function. Secondly, building on this unified framework, we provide a novel minimax solution (i.e., a rule that minimizes the maximum regret for so-called opportunists) for individualized decision-making/policy assignment. Lastly, we provide an interesting paradox drawing on novel connections between two challenging domains, that is, individualized decision-making and unmeasured confounding. Although motivated by instrumental variable bounds, we emphasize that the general framework proposed in this article would in principle apply for a rich set of bounds that might be available under partial identification.
A state-of-the-art systematic review on XAI applied to Prognostic and Health Management (PHM) of industrial asset is presented. The work attempts to provide an overview of the general trend of XAI in PHM, answers the question of accuracy versus explainability, investigates the extent of human role, explainability evaluation and uncertainty management in PHM XAI. Research articles linked to PHM XAI, in English language, from 2015 to 2021 are selected from IEEE Xplore, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, ACM Digital Library and Scopus databases using PRISMA guidelines. Data was extracted from 35 selected articles and examined using MS. Excel. Several findings were synthesized. Firstly, while the discipline is still young, the analysis indicates the growing acceptance of XAI in PHM domain. Secondly, XAI functions as a double edge sword, where it is assimilated as a tool to execute PHM tasks as well as a mean of explanation, in particular in diagnostic and anomaly detection. There is thus a need for XAI in PHM. Thirdly, the review shows that PHM XAI papers produce either good or excellent results in general, suggesting that PHM performance is unaffected by XAI. Fourthly, human role, explainability metrics and uncertainty management are areas requiring further attention by the PHM community. Adequate explainability metrics to cater for PHM need are urgently needed. Finally, most case study featured on the accepted articles are based on real, indicating that available AI and XAI approaches are equipped to solve complex real-world challenges, increasing the confidence of AI model adoption in the industry. This work is funded by the Universiti Teknologi Petronas Foundation.
One fundamental problem in the learning treatment effect from observational data is confounder identification and balancing. Most of the previous methods realized confounder balancing by treating all observed variables as confounders, ignoring the identification of confounders and non-confounders. In general, not all the observed variables are confounders which are the common causes of both the treatment and the outcome, some variables only contribute to the treatment and some contribute to the outcome. Balancing those non-confounders would generate additional bias for treatment effect estimation. By modeling the different relations among variables, treatment and outcome, we propose a synergistic learning framework to 1) identify and balance confounders by learning decomposed representation of confounders and non-confounders, and simultaneously 2) estimate the treatment effect in observational studies via counterfactual inference. Our empirical results demonstrate that the proposed method can precisely identify and balance confounders, while the estimation of the treatment effect performs better than the state-of-the-art methods on both synthetic and real-world datasets.