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Modern Computing: A Short History, 1945-2022

#artificialintelligence

Inspired by A New History of Modern Computing by Thomas Haigh and Paul E. Ceruzzi. But the selection of key events in the journey from ENIAC to Tesla, from Data Processing to Big Data, is mine. This was the first computer made by Apple Computers Inc, which became one of the fastest growing ... [ ] companies in history, launching a number of innovative and influential computer hardware and software products. Most home computer users in the 1970s were hobbyists who designed and assembled their own machines. The Apple I, devised in a bedroom by Steve Wozniak, Steven Jobs and Ron Wayne, was a basic circuit board to which enthusiasts would add display units and keyboards. April 1945 John von Neumann's "First Draft of a Report on the EDVAC," often called the founding document of modern computing, defines "the stored program concept." July 1945 Vannevar Bush publishes "As We May Think," in which he envisions the "Memex," a memory extension device serving as a large personal repository of information that could be instantly retrieved through associative links.


Can You Code Empathy? with Pascale Fung

#artificialintelligence

ANJA KASPERSEN: Today I am very pleased to be joined by Pascale Fung. Pascale is a;rofessor in the Department of Electronic and Computer Engineering and Department of Computer Science and Engineering at The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology. She is known globally for her pioneering work on conversational artificial intelligence (AI), computational linguistics, and was one of the earliest proponents of statistical and machine-learning approaches for natural language processing (NLP). She is now leading groundbreaking research on how to build intelligent systems that can understand and empathize with humans. I have really been looking forward to this conversation with you. Your professional accolades are many, most of which we will touch on during our conversation. However, for our listeners to get to know you a bit better, I would like us to go back to your upbringing during what I understand to be a very tenuous political period in China. I was born, spent my childhood, ...


The New Intelligence Game

#artificialintelligence

The relevance of the video is that the browser identified the application being used by the IAI as Google Earth and, according to the OSC 2006 report, the Arabic-language caption reads Islamic Army in Iraq/The Military Engineering Unit – Preparations for Rocket Attack, the video was recorded in 5/1/2006, we provide, in Appendix A, a reproduction of the screenshot picture made available in the OSC report. Now, prior to the release of this video demonstration of the use of Google Earth to plan attacks, in accordance with the OSC 2006 report, in the OSC-monitored online forums, discussions took place on the use of Google Earth as a GEOINT tool for terrorist planning. On August 5, 2005 the user "Al-Illiktrony" posted a message to the Islamic Renewal Organization forum titled A Gift for the Mujahidin, a Program To Enable You to Watch Cities of the World Via Satellite, in this post the author dedicated Google Earth to the mujahidin brothers and to Shaykh Muhammad al-Mas'ari, the post was replied in the forum by "Al-Mushtaq al-Jannah" warning that Google programs retain complete information about their users. This is a relevant issue, however, there are two caveats, given the amount of Google Earth users, it may be difficult for Google to flag a jihadist using the functionality in time to prevent an attack plan, one possible solution would be for Google to flag computers based on searched websites and locations, for instance to flag computers that visit certain critical sites, but this is a problem when landmarks are used, furthermore, and this is the second caveat, one may not use one's own computer to produce the search or even mask the IP address. On October 3, 2005, as described in the OSC 2006 report, in a reply to a posting by Saddam Al-Arab on the Baghdad al-Rashid forum requesting the identification of a roughly sketched map, "Almuhannad" posted a link to a site that provided a free download of Google Earth, suggesting that the satellite imagery from Google's service could help identify the sketch.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Systems Challenges for Trustworthy Embodied Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

A new generation of increasingly autonomous and self-learning systems, which we call embodied systems, is about to be developed. When deploying these systems into a real-life context we face various engineering challenges, as it is crucial to coordinate the behavior of embodied systems in a beneficial manner, ensure their compatibility with our human-centered social values, and design verifiably safe and reliable human-machine interaction. We are arguing that raditional systems engineering is coming to a climacteric from embedded to embodied systems, and with assuring the trustworthiness of dynamic federations of situationally aware, intent-driven, explorative, ever-evolving, largely non-predictable, and increasingly autonomous embodied systems in uncertain, complex, and unpredictable real-world contexts. We are also identifying a number of urgent systems challenges for trustworthy embodied systems, including robust and human-centric AI, cognitive architectures, uncertainty quantification, trustworthy self-integration, and continual analysis and assurance.


Sustainable AI: Environmental Implications, Challenges and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper explores the environmental impact of the super-linear growth trends for AI from a holistic perspective, spanning Data, Algorithms, and System Hardware. We characterize the carbon footprint of AI computing by examining the model development cycle across industry-scale machine learning use cases and, at the same time, considering the life cycle of system hardware. Taking a step further, we capture the operational and manufacturing carbon footprint of AI computing and present an end-to-end analysis for what and how hardware-software design and at-scale optimization can help reduce the overall carbon footprint of AI. Based on the industry experience and lessons learned, we share the key challenges and chart out important development directions across the many dimensions of AI. We hope the key messages and insights presented in this paper can inspire the community to advance the field of AI in an environmentally-responsible manner.


Machines and Influence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Policymakers face a broader challenge of how to view AI capabilities today and where does society stand in terms of those capabilities. This paper surveys AI capabilities and tackles this very issue, exploring it in context of political security in digitally networked societies. We extend the ideas of Information Management to better understand contemporary AI systems as part of a larger and more complex information system. Comprehensively reviewing AI capabilities and contemporary man-machine interactions, we undertake conceptual development to suggest that better information management could allow states to more optimally offset the risks of AI enabled influence and better utilise the emerging capabilities which these systems have to offer to policymakers and political institutions across the world. Hopefully this long essay will actuate further debates and discussions over these ideas, and prove to be a useful contribution towards governing the future of AI.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


A Comprehensive Survey on Radio Frequency (RF) Fingerprinting: Traditional Approaches, Deep Learning, and Open Challenges

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fifth generation (5G) networks and beyond envisions massive Internet of Things (IoT) rollout to support disruptive applications such as extended reality (XR), augmented/virtual reality (AR/VR), industrial automation, autonomous driving, and smart everything which brings together massive and diverse IoT devices occupying the radio frequency (RF) spectrum. Along with spectrum crunch and throughput challenges, such a massive scale of wireless devices exposes unprecedented threat surfaces. RF fingerprinting is heralded as a candidate technology that can be combined with cryptographic and zero-trust security measures to ensure data privacy, confidentiality, and integrity in wireless networks. Motivated by the relevance of this subject in the future communication networks, in this work, we present a comprehensive survey of RF fingerprinting approaches ranging from a traditional view to the most recent deep learning (DL) based algorithms. Existing surveys have mostly focused on a constrained presentation of the wireless fingerprinting approaches, however, many aspects remain untold. In this work, however, we mitigate this by addressing every aspect - background on signal intelligence (SIGINT), applications, relevant DL algorithms, systematic literature review of RF fingerprinting techniques spanning the past two decades, discussion on datasets, and potential research avenues - necessary to elucidate this topic to the reader in an encyclopedic manner.