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Pinaki Laskar on LinkedIn: #machinelearning #artificialintelligence #nlp

#artificialintelligence

AI Researcher, Cognitive Technologist Inventor - AI Thinking, Think Chain Innovator - AIOT, XAI, Autonomous Cars, IIOT Founder Fisheyebox Spatial Computing Savant, Transformative Leader, Industry X.0 Practitioner What are the current AI or machine learning research trends? NLP AI, large neural networks trained for language understanding and generation, the best shortcuts to artificial general intelligence. Large language models, such as PaLM, GLaM, GPT-3, Megatron-Turing NLG, Gopher, Chinchilla, LaMDA, are led by WuDao 2.0 model trained by studying 1.2TB of text and 4.9TB of images using 1.75tn parameters to simulate conversations, understand pictures, write poems and create recipes. It all is relying on unlimited brute force scaling, tens of gigabytes in size and trained on enormous amounts of text data, sometimes at the petabyte scale. The Pathways Language Model (PaLM), a 540-billion parameter, dense decoder-only Transformer model trained with the Pathways system, which enabled us to efficiently train a single model across multiple TPU v4 Pods.


Technology Ethics in Action: Critical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This special issue interrogates the meaning and impacts of "tech ethics": the embedding of ethics into digital technology research, development, use, and governance. In response to concerns about the social harms associated with digital technologies, many individuals and institutions have articulated the need for a greater emphasis on ethics in digital technology. Yet as more groups embrace the concept of ethics, critical discourses have emerged questioning whose ethics are being centered, whether "ethics" is the appropriate frame for improving technology, and what it means to develop "ethical" technology in practice. This interdisciplinary issue takes up these questions, interrogating the relationships among ethics, technology, and society in action. This special issue engages with the normative and contested notions of ethics itself, how ethics has been integrated with technology across domains, and potential paths forward to support more just and egalitarian technology. Rather than starting from philosophical theories, the authors in this issue orient their articles around the real-world discourses and impacts of tech ethics--i.e., tech ethics in action.


Machines and Influence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Policymakers face a broader challenge of how to view AI capabilities today and where does society stand in terms of those capabilities. This paper surveys AI capabilities and tackles this very issue, exploring it in context of political security in digitally networked societies. We extend the ideas of Information Management to better understand contemporary AI systems as part of a larger and more complex information system. Comprehensively reviewing AI capabilities and contemporary man-machine interactions, we undertake conceptual development to suggest that better information management could allow states to more optimally offset the risks of AI enabled influence and better utilise the emerging capabilities which these systems have to offer to policymakers and political institutions across the world. Hopefully this long essay will actuate further debates and discussions over these ideas, and prove to be a useful contribution towards governing the future of AI.


Forecasting: theory and practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.


HeteroQA: Learning towards Question-and-Answering through Multiple Information Sources via Heterogeneous Graph Modeling

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Community Question Answering (CQA) is a well-defined task that can be used in many scenarios, such as E-Commerce and online user community for special interests. In these communities, users can post articles, give comment, raise a question and answer it. These data form the heterogeneous information sources where each information source have their own special structure and context (comments attached to an article or related question with answers). Most of the CQA methods only incorporate articles or Wikipedia to extract knowledge and answer the user's question. However, various types of information sources in the community are not fully explored by these CQA methods and these multiple information sources (MIS) can provide more related knowledge to user's questions. Thus, we propose a question-aware heterogeneous graph transformer to incorporate the MIS in the user community to automatically generate the answer. To evaluate our proposed method, we conduct the experiments on two datasets: $\text{MSM}^{\text{plus}}$ the modified version of benchmark dataset MS-MARCO and the AntQA dataset which is the first large-scale CQA dataset with four types of MIS. Extensive experiments on two datasets show that our model outperforms all the baselines in terms of all the metrics.


When Creators Meet the Metaverse: A Survey on Computational Arts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The metaverse, enormous virtual-physical cyberspace, has brought unprecedented opportunities for artists to blend every corner of our physical surroundings with digital creativity. This article conducts a comprehensive survey on computational arts, in which seven critical topics are relevant to the metaverse, describing novel artworks in blended virtual-physical realities. The topics first cover the building elements for the metaverse, e.g., virtual scenes and characters, auditory, textual elements. Next, several remarkable types of novel creations in the expanded horizons of metaverse cyberspace have been reflected, such as immersive arts, robotic arts, and other user-centric approaches fuelling contemporary creative outputs. Finally, we propose several research agendas: democratising computational arts, digital privacy, and safety for metaverse artists, ownership recognition for digital artworks, technological challenges, and so on. The survey also serves as introductory material for artists and metaverse technologists to begin creations in the realm of surrealistic cyberspace.


SOLVER: Scene-Object Interrelated Visual Emotion Reasoning Network

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Visual Emotion Analysis (VEA) aims at finding out how people feel emotionally towards different visual stimuli, which has attracted great attention recently with the prevalence of sharing images on social networks. Since human emotion involves a highly complex and abstract cognitive process, it is difficult to infer visual emotions directly from holistic or regional features in affective images. It has been demonstrated in psychology that visual emotions are evoked by the interactions between objects as well as the interactions between objects and scenes within an image. Inspired by this, we propose a novel Scene-Object interreLated Visual Emotion Reasoning network (SOLVER) to predict emotions from images. To mine the emotional relationships between distinct objects, we first build up an Emotion Graph based on semantic concepts and visual features. Then, we conduct reasoning on the Emotion Graph using Graph Convolutional Network (GCN), yielding emotion-enhanced object features. We also design a Scene-Object Fusion Module to integrate scenes and objects, which exploits scene features to guide the fusion process of object features with the proposed scene-based attention mechanism. Extensive experiments and comparisons are conducted on eight public visual emotion datasets, and the results demonstrate that the proposed SOLVER consistently outperforms the state-of-the-art methods by a large margin. Ablation studies verify the effectiveness of our method and visualizations prove its interpretability, which also bring new insight to explore the mysteries in VEA. Notably, we further discuss SOLVER on three other potential datasets with extended experiments, where we validate the robustness of our method and notice some limitations of it.


Ego4D: Around the World in 3,000 Hours of Egocentric Video

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Ego4D, a massive-scale egocentric video dataset and benchmark suite. It offers 3,025 hours of daily-life activity video spanning hundreds of scenarios (household, outdoor, workplace, leisure, etc.) captured by 855 unique camera wearers from 74 worldwide locations and 9 different countries. The approach to collection is designed to uphold rigorous privacy and ethics standards with consenting participants and robust de-identification procedures where relevant. Ego4D dramatically expands the volume of diverse egocentric video footage publicly available to the research community. Portions of the video are accompanied by audio, 3D meshes of the environment, eye gaze, stereo, and/or synchronized videos from multiple egocentric cameras at the same event. Furthermore, we present a host of new benchmark challenges centered around understanding the first-person visual experience in the past (querying an episodic memory), present (analyzing hand-object manipulation, audio-visual conversation, and social interactions), and future (forecasting activities). By publicly sharing this massive annotated dataset and benchmark suite, we aim to push the frontier of first-person perception. Project page: https://ego4d-data.org/


Trustworthy AI: From Principles to Practices

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Fast developing artificial intelligence (AI) technology has enabled various applied systems deployed in the real world, impacting people's everyday lives. However, many current AI systems were found vulnerable to imperceptible attacks, biased against underrepresented groups, lacking in user privacy protection, etc., which not only degrades user experience but erodes the society's trust in all AI systems. In this review, we strive to provide AI practitioners a comprehensive guide towards building trustworthy AI systems. We first introduce the theoretical framework of important aspects of AI trustworthiness, including robustness, generalization, explainability, transparency, reproducibility, fairness, privacy preservation, alignment with human values, and accountability. We then survey leading approaches in these aspects in the industry. To unify the current fragmented approaches towards trustworthy AI, we propose a systematic approach that considers the entire lifecycle of AI systems, ranging from data acquisition to model development, to development and deployment, finally to continuous monitoring and governance. In this framework, we offer concrete action items to practitioners and societal stakeholders (e.g., researchers and regulators) to improve AI trustworthiness. Finally, we identify key opportunities and challenges in the future development of trustworthy AI systems, where we identify the need for paradigm shift towards comprehensive trustworthy AI systems.


A Sociotechnical View of Algorithmic Fairness

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Algorithmic fairness has been framed as a newly emerging technology that mitigates systemic discrimination in automated decision-making, providing opportunities to improve fairness in information systems (IS). However, based on a state-of-the-art literature review, we argue that fairness is an inherently social concept and that technologies for algorithmic fairness should therefore be approached through a sociotechnical lens. We advance the discourse on algorithmic fairness as a sociotechnical phenomenon. Our research objective is to embed AF in the sociotechnical view of IS. Specifically, we elaborate on why outcomes of a system that uses algorithmic means to assure fairness depends on mutual influences between technical and social structures. This perspective can generate new insights that integrate knowledge from both technical fields and social studies. Further, it spurs new directions for IS debates. We contribute as follows: First, we problematize fundamental assumptions in the current discourse on algorithmic fairness based on a systematic analysis of 310 articles. Second, we respond to these assumptions by theorizing algorithmic fairness as a sociotechnical construct. Third, we propose directions for IS researchers to enhance their impacts by pursuing a unique understanding of sociotechnical algorithmic fairness. We call for and undertake a holistic approach to AF. A sociotechnical perspective on algorithmic fairness can yield holistic solutions to systemic biases and discrimination.