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What is artificial intelligence or artificial intelligence and how does it work?

#artificialintelligence

The full form of AI is Artificial Intelligence or in Hindi it means artificial intelligence or artificial brain. This is such a simulation that machines are given human intelligence, or rather, their brains are so advanced that they can think and work like humans. This is done especially in the computer system itself. There are mainly three processes involved in this process and they are first learning (in which information is put in the mind of machines and they are also taught some rules so that they follow those rules to complete a given task), second is Rezoning (under this, the machines are instructed to follow the rules made to move towards the results so that they can get an approximate or definite conclusion) and the third is Self-Correction. If we talk about the particular application of AI, then it includes expert system, speech recognition and machine vision.


AI is 'Better Than' Humans and That is Ok

#artificialintelligence

Remember in 2017, Elon Musk said that artificial intelligence would replace humanity in the next five years? While working on artificial intelligence for Tesla cars, he concluded that society had approached the moment when artificial intelligence could become significantly smarter than people. "People should not underestimate the power of the computer,'' Musk said. "This is pride and an obvious mistake." He must know what he's talking about, being one of the early investors of DeepMind, a Google subsidiary that developed an AI that could beat humans at Go and chess. AI is really good at many "human" tasks -- diagnosing diseases, translating languages, and serving customers.


Good Old-Fashioned Artificial Intelligence and other weird and wonderful AI trivia

#artificialintelligence

The first ultraintelligent machine is the last invention that man needs ever make, provided that the machine is docile enough to tell us how to keep it under control, said Oxford philosopher Nick Bostrom. His book, Superintelligence, is a crystal ball on AI's timeline and the future of humanity. Inarguably, artificial intelligence has become an integral part of our lives. Here, we look at the AI breakthroughs that precipitated this paradigm shift. In 1956, John McCarthy, one of the founding fathers of AI, coined the term "artificial intelligence" during the Dartmouth workshop in 1956.


Speed, Quality, and the Optimal Timing of Complex Decisions: Field Evidence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper presents an empirical investigation of the relation between decision speed and decision quality for a real-world setting of cognitively-demanding decisions in which the timing of decisions is endogenous: professional chess. Move-by-move data provide exceptionally detailed and precise information about decision times and decision quality, based on a comparison of actual decisions to a computational benchmark of best moves constructed using the artificial intelligence of a chess engine. The results reveal that faster decisions are associated with better performance. The findings are consistent with the predictions of procedural decision models like drift-diffusion-models in which decision makers sequentially acquire information about decision alternatives with uncertain valuations.


How the AI Revolution Impacted Chess (1/2)

#artificialintelligence

The wave of neural network engines that AlphaZero inspired have impacted chess preparation, opening theory, and middlegame concepts. We can see this impact most clearly at the elite level because top grandmasters prepare openings and get ideas by working with modern engines. For instance, Carlsen cited AlphaZero as a source of inspiration for his remarkable play in 2019. Neural network engines like AlphaZero learn from experience by developing patterns through numerous games against itself (known as self-play reinforcement learning) and understanding which ideas work well in different types of positions. This pattern recognition ability suggests that they are especially strong in openings and strategic middlegames where long-term factors must be assessed accurately. In these areas of chess, their experience allows them to steer the game towards positions that provide relatively high probabilities of winning.


Challenges of Artificial Intelligence -- From Machine Learning and Computer Vision to Emotional Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) has become a part of everyday conversation and our lives. It is considered as the new electricity that is revolutionizing the world. AI is heavily invested in both industry and academy. However, there is also a lot of hype in the current AI debate. AI based on so-called deep learning has achieved impressive results in many problems, but its limits are already visible. AI has been under research since the 1940s, and the industry has seen many ups and downs due to over-expectations and related disappointments that have followed. The purpose of this book is to give a realistic picture of AI, its history, its potential and limitations. We believe that AI is a helper, not a ruler of humans. We begin by describing what AI is and how it has evolved over the decades. After fundamentals, we explain the importance of massive data for the current mainstream of artificial intelligence. The most common representations for AI, methods, and machine learning are covered. In addition, the main application areas are introduced. Computer vision has been central to the development of AI. The book provides a general introduction to computer vision, and includes an exposure to the results and applications of our own research. Emotions are central to human intelligence, but little use has been made in AI. We present the basics of emotional intelligence and our own research on the topic. We discuss super-intelligence that transcends human understanding, explaining why such achievement seems impossible on the basis of present knowledge,and how AI could be improved. Finally, a summary is made of the current state of AI and what to do in the future. In the appendix, we look at the development of AI education, especially from the perspective of contents at our own university.


What are the types of artificial intelligence?

#artificialintelligence

The artificial intelligence is a science, and like all examples has its subdivisions. See below, which are the types of artificial intelligence according to their capabilities and functionalities within the spectrum of approximation between the functioning of machines and the human brain. Since AI research aims to make machines "emulate" human-like functioning, the degree to which an AI system can replicate human capabilities is used as the criterion for determining the types that exist. Depending on how a machine compares to humans in terms of versatility and performance, artificial intelligence can be classified into one or several types of AI. The greater the ability to perform more human-like functions with equivalent levels of proficiency will be considered a more evolved type of artificial intelligence, while those with limited functionality and performance is considered a simpler and less evolved type.


Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a broad field of computer science that focuses on creating intelligent machines that can accomplish activities that would normally need human intelligence. Machines may learn from their experiences, adapt to new inputs, and execute human-like jobs thanks to artificial intelligence (AI). Most AI examples you hear about today rely largely on deep learning and natural language processing, from chess-playing computers to self-driving cars. Computers can be trained to perform certain jobs by processing massive volumes of data and recognizing patterns in the data using these methods. Artificial Intelligence refers to the intelligence displayed by machines. In today's world, Artificial Intelligence has become highly popular. It is the simulation of human intelligence in computers that have been programmed to learn and mimic human actions.


Player of Games

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Games have a long history of serving as a benchmark for progress in artificial intelligence. Recently, approaches using search and learning have shown strong performance across a set of perfect information games, and approaches using game-theoretic reasoning and learning have shown strong performance for specific imperfect information poker variants. We introduce Player of Games, a general-purpose algorithm that unifies previous approaches, combining guided search, self-play learning, and game-theoretic reasoning. Player of Games is the first algorithm to achieve strong empirical performance in large perfect and imperfect information games -- an important step towards truly general algorithms for arbitrary environments. We prove that Player of Games is sound, converging to perfect play as available computation time and approximation capacity increases. Player of Games reaches strong performance in chess and Go, beats the strongest openly available agent in heads-up no-limit Texas hold'em poker (Slumbot), and defeats the state-of-the-art agent in Scotland Yard, an imperfect information game that illustrates the value of guided search, learning, and game-theoretic reasoning.


Acquisition of Chess Knowledge in AlphaZero

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

What is learned by sophisticated neural network agents such as AlphaZero? This question is of both scientific and practical interest. If the representations of strong neural networks bear no resemblance to human concepts, our ability to understand faithful explanations of their decisions will be restricted, ultimately limiting what we can achieve with neural network interpretability. In this work we provide evidence that human knowledge is acquired by the AlphaZero neural network as it trains on the game of chess. By probing for a broad range of human chess concepts we show when and where these concepts are represented in the AlphaZero network. We also provide a behavioural analysis focusing on opening play, including qualitative analysis from chess Grandmaster Vladimir Kramnik. Finally, we carry out a preliminary investigation looking at the low-level details of AlphaZero's representations, and make the resulting behavioural and representational analyses available online.