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Machine Learning Technique Could Aid Mental Health Diagnoses: Study

#artificialintelligence

London, February 9: Researchers have developed a new Machine Learning (ML) technique to more accurately identify patients with a mix of psychotic and depressive symptoms. While patients with depression as a primary illness are more likely to be diagnosed accurately, patients with depression and psychosis rarely experience symptoms of purely one or the other illness. Those with psychosis with depression have symptoms which most frequently tend towards the depression dimension. Historically, this has meant that mental health clinicians give a diagnosis of a'primary' illness, but with secondary symptoms. "The majority of patients have comorbidities, so people with psychosis also have depressive symptoms and vice versa," said lead author Paris Alexandros Lalousis from the University of Birmingham in the UK.


Designing a Mobile Social and Vocational Reintegration Assistant for Burn-out Outpatient Treatment

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Using Social Agents as health-care assistants or trainers is one focus area of IVA research. While their use as physical health-care agents is well established, their employment in the field of psychotherapeutic care comes with daunting challenges. This paper presents our mobile Social Agent EmmA in the role of a vocational reintegration assistant for burn-out outpatient treatment. We follow a typical participatory design approach including experts and patients in order to address requirements from both sides. Since the success of such treatments is related to a patients emotion regulation capabilities, we employ a real-time social signal interpretation together with a computational simulation of emotion regulation that influences the agent's social behavior as well as the situational selection of verbal treatment strategies. Overall, our interdisciplinary approach enables a novel integrative concept for Social Agents as assistants for burn-out patients.


Transfer entropy applied on EEG in depression reveals aberrated dynamics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent findings confirm the importance of a disrupted functional connectivity within the fronto-limbic system and other candidate areas important for depression. The question behind our work is whether areas with confirmed aberrated functioning in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are actually involved in the network which has different dynamics from a healthy one. On a sample of 21 depressed patients (11 women and 9 men) and 20 age-matched healthy controls (10 women and 10 men), we applied Transfer Entropy (TE) to quantify the directed dynamical interactions in the resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) data recorded in our previous research in which we compared physiological complexity features of recurrently depressed patients and healthy controls. The dynamics of healthy resting-state EEG is substantially different from the dynamics of MDD brain: the interactions (information transfers) in healthy controls are numerous during resting state, contrary to MDD brains which are repeatedly showing the "isolated" activity in frontal, parietal and temporal areas. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that a graphical representation of information transfer and its directions is presented showing the differences between MDD and healthy controls.


GPT-3 Creative Fiction

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What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.


A systematic review and taxonomy of explanations in decision support and recommender systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the recent advances in the field of artificial intelligence, an increasing number of decision-making tasks are delegated to software systems. A key requirement for the success and adoption of such systems is that users must trust system choices or even fully automated decisions. To achieve this, explanation facilities have been widely investigated as a means of establishing trust in these systems since the early years of expert systems. With today's increasingly sophisticated machine learning algorithms, new challenges in the context of explanations, accountability, and trust towards such systems constantly arise. In this work, we systematically review the literature on explanations in advice-giving systems. This is a family of systems that includes recommender systems, which is one of the most successful classes of advice-giving software in practice. We investigate the purposes of explanations as well as how they are generated, presented to users, and evaluated. As a result, we derive a novel comprehensive taxonomy of aspects to be considered when designing explanation facilities for current and future decision support systems. The taxonomy includes a variety of different facets, such as explanation objective, responsiveness, content and presentation. Moreover, we identified several challenges that remain unaddressed so far, for example related to fine-grained issues associated with the presentation of explanations and how explanation facilities are evaluated.


On mistakes we made in prior Computational Psychiatry Data driven approach projects and how they jeopardize translation of those findings in clinical practice

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In this work we aimed at comparing our findings in depression detection task with methodologies applied in present literature. Previously we showed that when electrophysiological signal (in this case electroencephalogram, EEG) is characterized by nonlinear measures, any of seven most popular classifiers yields high accuracy on the task. Following every step we done in this process we compare it with other researchers' practice and comment on other findings mainly from analysis of electrical signals or nonlinear analysis showing what would be optimal for further research. We focused on discussing various mistakes and differences that could potentially lead to unwarranted optimism and other misinterpretation of results. In Conclusion we summarize recommendation for future research in order to be applicable in clinical practice. Introduction Current clinical psychiatry is lacking objective biochemical or electrophysiological tests used for diagnosis unlike other medical disciplines. To diagnose depression, clinician will typically rely on the self-report from the patient and his experience in applying DSM manual, which is standardized list of symptoms to be checked in every case (in order to be qualified as a certain disorder). It is perfectly possible that two persons diagnosed with the same disorder have not overlapping symptoms, and that one person can have two distinct diagnosis. If someone has more than three episodes of depression, that is considered to be recurrent depression (after every episode the probability of the next one is doubling). This is particularly heard to treat and manage therapy which is ongoing through person's whole life. Apart from obsolete diagnostic, all antidepressants have serious side-effects, the waiting lists are very long (in Nederland they are between 6 and 9 months long) and the therapy can last for years or even decades. It is reported than only 11 - 30% of patients are improving in the first year of therapy (Rush et al., 2008).


Interactions in information spread: quantification and interpretation using stochastic block models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

In most real-world applications, it is seldom the case that a given observable evolves independently of its environment. In social networks, users' behavior results from the people they interact with, news in their feed, or trending topics. In natural language, the meaning of phrases emerges from the combination of words. In general medicine, a diagnosis is established on the basis of the interaction of symptoms. Here, we propose a new model, the Interactive Mixed Membership Stochastic Block Model (IMMSBM), which investigates the role of interactions between entities (hashtags, words, memes, etc.) and quantifies their importance within the aforementioned corpora. We find that interactions play an important role in those corpora. In inference tasks, taking them into account leads to average relative changes with respect to non-interactive models of up to 150\% in the probability of an outcome. Furthermore, their role greatly improves the predictive power of the model. Our findings suggest that neglecting interactions when modeling real-world phenomena might lead to incorrect conclusions being drawn.


Large expert-curated database for benchmarking document similarity detection in biomedical literature search

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Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations.


Predicting Sex-Specific Suicide Risk Using Machine Learning Models - Psychiatry Advisor

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A study published in JAMA Psychiatry outlined sex-specific suicide prediction models by using a novel machine learning design. Lead study author Jaimie L. Gradus, DMSc, DSc, of Boston University School of Public Health, Massachusetts, and colleagues used machine learning to analyze data from Danish single-payer healthcare and social registries from 1995 through 2015. As such, the source population for the case cohort study comprised all people living in Denmark since 1995. The main outcome was death from suicide, and the study included 1339 variables as exposures. The researchers created a comparison sub-cohort comprised of a 5% random sample of registry data.


Predictive Biases in Natural Language Processing Models: A Conceptual Framework and Overview

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

An increasing number of works in natural language processing have addressed the effect of bias on the predicted outcomes, introducing mitigation techniques that act on different parts of the standard NLP pipeline (data and models). However, these works have been conducted in isolation, without a unifying framework to organize efforts within the field. This leads to repetitive approaches, and puts an undue focus on the effects of bias, rather than on their origins. Research focused on bias symptoms rather than the underlying origins could limit the development of effective countermeasures. In this paper, we propose a unifying conceptualization: the predictive bias framework for NLP . We summarize the NLP literature and propose a general mathematical definition of predictive bias in NLP along with a conceptual framework, differentiating four main origins of biases: label bias, selection bias, model overamplification, and semantic bias . We discuss how past work has countered each bias origin. Our framework serves to guide an introductory overview of predictive bias in NLP, integrating existing work into a single structure and opening avenues for future research.