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Machine learning radically reduces workload of cell counting for disease diagnosis

#artificialintelligence

The use of machine learning to perform blood cell counts for diagnosis of disease instead of expensive and often less accurate cell analyzer machines has nevertheless been very labor-intensive as it takes an enormous amount of manual annotation work by humans in the training of the machine learning model. However, researchers at Benihang University have developed a new training method that automates much of this activity. Their new training scheme is described in a paper published in the journal Cyborg and Bionic Systems on April 9. The number and type of cells in the blood often play a crucial role in disease diagnosis, but the cell analysis techniques commonly used to perform such counting of blood cells--involving the detection and measurement of physical and chemical characteristics of cells suspended in fluid--are expensive and require complex preparations. Worse still, the accuracy of cell analyzer machines is only about 90 percent due to various influences such as temperature, pH, voltage, and magnetic field that can confuse the equipment.


SoundWatch

Communications of the ACM

We present SoundWatch, a smartwatch-based deep learning application to sense, classify, and provide feedback about sounds occurring in the environment.


Challenges, Experiments, and Computational Solutions in Peer Review

Communications of the ACM

While researchers are trained to do research, there is little training for peer review. Several initiatives and experiments have looked to address this challenge. Recently, the ICML 2020 conference adopted a method to select and then mentor junior reviewers, who would not have been asked to review otherwise, with a motivation of expanding the reviewer pool to address the large volume of submissions.43 An analysis of their reviews revealed that the junior reviewers were more engaged through various stages of the process as compared to conventional reviewers. Moreover, the conference asked meta reviewers to rate all reviews, and 30% of reviews written by junior reviewers received the highest rating by meta reviewers, in contrast to 14% for the main pool. Training reviewers at the beginning of their careers is a good start but may not be enough. There is some evidence8 that quality of an individual's review falls over time, at a slow but steady rate, possibly because of increasing time constraints or in reaction to poor-quality reviews they themselves receive. While researchers are trained to do research, there is little training for peer review … Training reviewers at the beginning of their careers is a good start but may not be enough.


Identification of long COVID patients through machine learning

#artificialintelligence

In a recent study posted to Preprints with The Lancet*, researchers developed a machine learning approach to identify patients with long coronavirus disease (COVID). The post-acute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are called long COVID. In the present study, researchers aimed to generate a robust clinical definition for long COVID using data related to long COVID patients. The team utilized data obtained from electronic health records that were integrated and harmonized in the secure N3C Data Enclave. This allowed the team to identify unique patterns and clinical characteristics among COVID-19-infected patients.


Artificial intelligence makes a splash in small-molecule drug discovery

#artificialintelligence

In the past five years, interest in applying artificial intelligence (AI) approaches in drug research and development (R&D) has surged. Driven by the expectation of accelerated timelines, reduced costs and the potential to reveal hidden insights from vast datasets, more than 150 companies with a focus on AI have raised funding in this period, based on an analysis of the field by Back Bay Life Science Advisors (Figure 1a). And the number of financings and average amount raised soared in 2021. At the forefront of this field are companies harnessing AI approaches such as machine learning (ML) in small-molecule drug discovery, which account for the majority of financings backed by venture capital (VC) in recent years (Figure 1b), as well as some initial public offerings (IPOs) for pioneers in the area (Table 1). Such companies have also attracted large pharma companies to establish multiple high-value partnerships (Table 2), and the first AI-based small-molecule drug candidates are now in clinical trials (Nat.


Doctors Are Very Worried About Medical AI That Predicts Race

#artificialintelligence

To conclude, our study showed that medical AI systems can easily learn to recognise self-reported racial identity from medical images, and that this capability is extremely difficult to isolate,


An experimental design perspective on model-based reinforcement learning

AIHub

We evaluate BARL on the TQRL setting in 5 environments which span a variety of reward function types, dimensionalities, and amounts of required data. In this evaluation, we estimate the minimum amount of data an algorithm needs to learn a controller. The evaluation environments include the standard underactuated pendulum swing-up task, a cartpole swing-up task, the standard 2-DOF reacher task, a navigation problem where the agent must find a path across pools of lava, and a simulated nuclear fusion control problem where the agent is tasked with modulating the power injected into the plasma to achieve a target pressure. To assess the performance of BARL in solving MDPs quickly, we assembled a group of reinforcement learning algorithms that represent the state of the art in solving continuous MDPs. We compare against model-based algorithms PILCO [7], PETS [2], model-predictive control with a GP (MPC), and uncertainty sampling with a GP (), as well as model-free algorithms SAC [3], TD3 [8], and PPO [9].


A Sensor Sniffs for Cancer, Using Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Researchers at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSK) have developed a sensor that can be trained to sniff for cancer, with the help of artificial intelligence. Although the training doesn't work the same way one trains a police dog to sniff for explosives or drugs, the sensor has some similarity to how the nose works. The nose can detect more than a trillion different scents, even though it has just a few hundred types of olfactory receptors. The pattern of which odor molecules bind to which receptors creates a kind of molecular signature that the brain uses to recognize a scent. Like the nose, the cancer detection technology uses an array of multiple sensors to detect a molecular signature of the disease.


Predicting Others' Behavior on the Road With Artificial Intelligence

#artificialintelligence

Researchers have created a machine-learning system that efficiently predicts the future trajectories of multiple road users, like drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians, which could enable an autonomous vehicle to more safely navigate city streets. If a robot is going to navigate a vehicle safely through downtown Boston, it must be able to predict what nearby drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians are going to do next. A new machine-learning system may someday help driverless cars predict the next moves of nearby drivers, pedestrians, and cyclists in real-time. Humans may be one of the biggest roadblocks to fully autonomous vehicles operating on city streets. If a robot is going to navigate a vehicle safely through downtown Boston, it must be able to predict what nearby drivers, pedestrians, and cyclists are going to do next.


Predict Ads Click - Practice Data Analysis and Logistic Regression Prediction - Projects Based Learning

#artificialintelligence

In this project we will be working with a data set, indicating whether or not a particular internet user clicked on an Advertisement. We will try to create a model that will predict whether or not they will click on an ad based off the features of that user. Welcome to this project on predict Ads Click in Apache Spark Machine Learning using Databricks platform community edition server which allows you to execute your spark code, free of cost on their server just by registering through email id. In this project, we explore Apache Spark and Machine Learning on the Databricks platform. I am a firm believer that the best way to learn is by doing.