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Use of machine learning in geriatric clinical care for chronic diseases: a systematic literature review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Objectives-Geriatric clinical care is a multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate older patients (age 65 years and above) functional ability, physical health, and cognitive wellbeing. The majority of these patients suffer from multiple chronic conditions and require special attention. Recently, hospitals utilize various artificial intelligence (AI) systems to improve care for elderly patients. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to understand the current use of AI systems, particularly machine learning (ML), in geriatric clinical care for chronic diseases. Materials and Methods-We restricted our search to eight databases, namely PubMed, WorldCat, MEDLINE, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Wiley, and ERIC, to analyze research articles published in English between January 2010 and June 2019. We focused on studies that used ML algorithms in the care of geriatrics patients with chronic conditions. Results-We identified 35 eligible studies and classified in three groups-psychological disorder (n=22), eye diseases (n=6), and others (n=7). This review identified the lack of standardized ML evaluation metrics and the need for data governance specific to health care applications. Conclusion- More studies and ML standardization tailored to health care applications are required to confirm whether ML could aid in improving geriatric clinical care.


On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


Top 10 AI Applications in Healthcare & the Medical Field

#artificialintelligence

Interest in artificial intelligence continues to explode across every industry, but few areas offer more opportunities for drastic improvement of human life than the application of machine learning and AI in healthcare and the medical field. Let's begin first with a definition. AI in healthcare and medicine means using data more effectively through machine learning algorithms to produce positive patient outcomes. The sheer amount of data created through IoT-enabled devices, the electronic medical record (EMR), and ever-expanding quantities of genetic data has made possible a large number of applications of artificial intelligence in healthcare. Check out the Harvard Business Review ranking of the potential value that these applications could bring to the healthcare industry. The underlying value of artificial intelligence is to enhance human decision-making and automate processes that are time- or resource-intensive for humans to perform.


Patient Similarity Analysis with Longitudinal Health Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Healthcare professionals have long envisioned using the enormous processing powers of computers to discover new facts and medical knowledge locked inside electronic health records. These vast medical archives contain time-resolved information about medical visits, tests and procedures, as well as outcomes, which together form individual patient journeys. By assessing the similarities among these journeys, it is possible to uncover clusters of common disease trajectories with shared health outcomes. The assignment of patient journeys to specific clusters may in turn serve as the basis for personalized outcome prediction and treatment selection. This procedure is a non-trivial computational problem, as it requires the comparison of patient data with multi-dimensional and multi-modal features that are captured at different times and resolutions. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the tools and methods that are used in patient similarity analysis with longitudinal data and discuss its potential for improving clinical decision making.


Industry News

#artificialintelligence

Find here a listing of the latest industry news in genomics, genetics, precision medicine, and beyond. Updates are provided on a monthly basis. Sign-Up for our newsletter and never miss out on the latest news and updates. As 2019 came to an end, Veritas Genetics struggled to get funding due to concerns it had previously taken money from China. It was forced to cease US operations and is in talks with potential buyers. The GenomeAsia 100K Project announced its pilot phase with hopes to tackle the underrepresentation of non-Europeans in human genetic studies and enable genetic discoveries across Asia. Veritas Genetics, the start-up that can sequence a human genome for less than $600, ceases US operations and is in talks with potential buyers Veritas Genetics ceases US operations but will continue Veritas Europe and Latin America. It had trouble raising funding due to previous China investments and is looking to be acquired. Illumina loses DNA sequencing patents The European Patent ...


Top 10 AI Applications in Healthcare & the Medical Field dynam.AI

#artificialintelligence

Interest in artificial intelligence continues to explode across every industry, but few areas offer more opportunities for drastic improvement of human life than the application of AI in healthcare and the medical field. Let's begin first with a definition. AI in healthcare and medicine means using data more effectively through machine learning algorithms to produce positive patient outcomes. The sheer amount of data created through IoT-enabled devices, the electronic medical record (EMR), and ever-expanding quantities of genetic data has made possible a large number of applications of artificial intelligence in healthcare. Check out the Harvard Business Review ranking of the potential value that these applications could bring to the healthcare industry. The underlying value of artificial intelligence is to enhance human decision-making and automate processes that are time- or resource-intensive for humans to perform.


Reinforcement Learning in Healthcare: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As a subfield of machine learning, \emph{reinforcement learning} (RL) aims at empowering one's capabilities in behavioural decision making by using interaction experience with the world and an evaluative feedback. Unlike traditional supervised learning methods that usually rely on one-shot, exhaustive and supervised reward signals, RL tackles with sequential decision making problems with sampled, evaluative and delayed feedback simultaneously. Such distinctive features make RL technique a suitable candidate for developing powerful solutions in a variety of healthcare domains, where diagnosing decisions or treatment regimes are usually characterized by a prolonged and sequential procedure. This survey will discuss the broad applications of RL techniques in healthcare domains, in order to provide the research community with systematic understanding of theoretical foundations, enabling methods and techniques, existing challenges, and new insights of this emerging paradigm. By first briefly examining theoretical foundations and key techniques in RL research from efficient and representational directions, we then provide an overview of RL applications in a variety of healthcare domains, ranging from dynamic treatment regimes in chronic diseases and critical care, automated medical diagnosis from both unstructured and structured clinical data, as well as many other control or scheduling domains that have infiltrated many aspects of a healthcare system. Finally, we summarize the challenges and open issues in current research, and point out some potential solutions and directions for future research.


Surgical robots, new medicines and better care: 32 examples of AI in healthcare

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence simplifies the lives of patients, doctors and hospital administrators by performing tasks that are typically done by humans, but in less time and at a fraction of the cost. One of the world's highest-growth industries, the AI sector was valued at about $600 million in 2014 and is projected to reach a $150 billion by 2026. Whether it's used to find new links between genetic codes or to drive surgery-assisting robots, artificial intelligence is reinventing -- and reinvigorating -- modern healthcare through machines that can predict, comprehend, learn and act. Check out these 32 examples of AI in healthcare. In 2015, misdiagnosing illness and medical error accounted for 10% of all US deaths. In light of that, the promise of improving the diagnostic process is one of AI's most exciting healthcare applications.


A Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendation System Based on Big Data Mining and Cloud Computing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

It is crucial to provide compatible treatment schemes for a disease according to various symptoms at different stages. However, most classification methods might be ineffective in accurately classifying a disease that holds the characteristics of multiple treatment stages, various symptoms, and multi-pathogenesis. Moreover, there are limited exchanges and cooperative actions in disease diagnoses and treatments between different departments and hospitals. Thus, when new diseases occur with atypical symptoms, inexperienced doctors might have difficulty in identifying them promptly and accurately. Therefore, to maximize the utilization of the advanced medical technology of developed hospitals and the rich medical knowledge of experienced doctors, a Disease Diagnosis and Treatment Recommendation System (DDTRS) is proposed in this paper. First, to effectively identify disease symptoms more accurately, a Density-Peaked Clustering Analysis (DPCA) algorithm is introduced for disease-symptom clustering. In addition, association analyses on Disease-Diagnosis (D-D) rules and Disease-Treatment (D-T) rules are conducted by the Apriori algorithm separately. The appropriate diagnosis and treatment schemes are recommended for patients and inexperienced doctors, even if they are in a limited therapeutic environment. Moreover, to reach the goals of high performance and low latency response, we implement a parallel solution for DDTRS using the Apache Spark cloud platform. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that the proposed DDTRS realizes disease-symptom clustering effectively and derives disease treatment recommendations intelligently and accurately.