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Use of machine learning in geriatric clinical care for chronic diseases: a systematic literature review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Objectives-Geriatric clinical care is a multidisciplinary assessment designed to evaluate older patients (age 65 years and above) functional ability, physical health, and cognitive wellbeing. The majority of these patients suffer from multiple chronic conditions and require special attention. Recently, hospitals utilize various artificial intelligence (AI) systems to improve care for elderly patients. The purpose of this systematic literature review is to understand the current use of AI systems, particularly machine learning (ML), in geriatric clinical care for chronic diseases. Materials and Methods-We restricted our search to eight databases, namely PubMed, WorldCat, MEDLINE, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, SpringerLink, Wiley, and ERIC, to analyze research articles published in English between January 2010 and June 2019. We focused on studies that used ML algorithms in the care of geriatrics patients with chronic conditions. Results-We identified 35 eligible studies and classified in three groups-psychological disorder (n=22), eye diseases (n=6), and others (n=7). This review identified the lack of standardized ML evaluation metrics and the need for data governance specific to health care applications. Conclusion- More studies and ML standardization tailored to health care applications are required to confirm whether ML could aid in improving geriatric clinical care.


On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


Neural Natural Language Processing for Unstructured Data in Electronic Health Records: a Review

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Electronic health records (EHRs), digital collections of patient healthcare events and observations, are ubiquitous in medicine and critical to healthcare delivery, operations, and research. Despite this central role, EHRs are notoriously difficult to process automatically. Well over half of the information stored within EHRs is in the form of unstructured text (e.g. provider notes, operation reports) and remains largely untapped for secondary use. Recently, however, newer neural network and deep learning approaches to Natural Language Processing (NLP) have made considerable advances, outperforming traditional statistical and rule-based systems on a variety of tasks. In this survey paper, we summarize current neural NLP methods for EHR applications. We focus on a broad scope of tasks, namely, classification and prediction, word embeddings, extraction, generation, and other topics such as question answering, phenotyping, knowledge graphs, medical dialogue, multilinguality, interpretability, etc.


Top 10 AI Applications in Healthcare & the Medical Field

#artificialintelligence

Interest in artificial intelligence continues to explode across every industry, but few areas offer more opportunities for drastic improvement of human life than the application of machine learning and AI in healthcare and the medical field. Let's begin first with a definition. AI in healthcare and medicine means using data more effectively through machine learning algorithms to produce positive patient outcomes. The sheer amount of data created through IoT-enabled devices, the electronic medical record (EMR), and ever-expanding quantities of genetic data has made possible a large number of applications of artificial intelligence in healthcare. Check out the Harvard Business Review ranking of the potential value that these applications could bring to the healthcare industry. The underlying value of artificial intelligence is to enhance human decision-making and automate processes that are time- or resource-intensive for humans to perform.


Top 10 AI Applications in Healthcare & the Medical Field dynam.AI

#artificialintelligence

Interest in artificial intelligence continues to explode across every industry, but few areas offer more opportunities for drastic improvement of human life than the application of AI in healthcare and the medical field. Let's begin first with a definition. AI in healthcare and medicine means using data more effectively through machine learning algorithms to produce positive patient outcomes. The sheer amount of data created through IoT-enabled devices, the electronic medical record (EMR), and ever-expanding quantities of genetic data has made possible a large number of applications of artificial intelligence in healthcare. Check out the Harvard Business Review ranking of the potential value that these applications could bring to the healthcare industry. The underlying value of artificial intelligence is to enhance human decision-making and automate processes that are time- or resource-intensive for humans to perform.


Reinforcement Learning in Healthcare: A Survey

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

As a subfield of machine learning, \emph{reinforcement learning} (RL) aims at empowering one's capabilities in behavioural decision making by using interaction experience with the world and an evaluative feedback. Unlike traditional supervised learning methods that usually rely on one-shot, exhaustive and supervised reward signals, RL tackles with sequential decision making problems with sampled, evaluative and delayed feedback simultaneously. Such distinctive features make RL technique a suitable candidate for developing powerful solutions in a variety of healthcare domains, where diagnosing decisions or treatment regimes are usually characterized by a prolonged and sequential procedure. This survey will discuss the broad applications of RL techniques in healthcare domains, in order to provide the research community with systematic understanding of theoretical foundations, enabling methods and techniques, existing challenges, and new insights of this emerging paradigm. By first briefly examining theoretical foundations and key techniques in RL research from efficient and representational directions, we then provide an overview of RL applications in a variety of healthcare domains, ranging from dynamic treatment regimes in chronic diseases and critical care, automated medical diagnosis from both unstructured and structured clinical data, as well as many other control or scheduling domains that have infiltrated many aspects of a healthcare system. Finally, we summarize the challenges and open issues in current research, and point out some potential solutions and directions for future research.