Goto

Collaborating Authors

Results


Precision Health Data: Requirements, Challenges and Existing Techniques for Data Security and Privacy

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Precision health leverages information from various sources, including omics, lifestyle, environment, social media, medical records, and medical insurance claims to enable personalized care, prevent and predict illness, and precise treatments. It extensively uses sensing technologies (e.g., electronic health monitoring devices), computations (e.g., machine learning), and communication (e.g., interaction between the health data centers). As health data contain sensitive private information, including the identity of patient and carer and medical conditions of the patient, proper care is required at all times. Leakage of these private information affects the personal life, including bullying, high insurance premium, and loss of job due to the medical history. Thus, the security, privacy of and trust on the information are of utmost importance. Moreover, government legislation and ethics committees demand the security and privacy of healthcare data. Herein, in the light of precision health data security, privacy, ethical and regulatory requirements, finding the best methods and techniques for the utilization of the health data, and thus precision health is essential. In this regard, firstly, this paper explores the regulations, ethical guidelines around the world, and domain-specific needs. Then it presents the requirements and investigates the associated challenges. Secondly, this paper investigates secure and privacy-preserving machine learning methods suitable for the computation of precision health data along with their usage in relevant health projects. Finally, it illustrates the best available techniques for precision health data security and privacy with a conceptual system model that enables compliance, ethics clearance, consent management, medical innovations, and developments in the health domain.


Deep Contextual Clinical Prediction with Reverse Distillation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Healthcare providers are increasingly using learned methods to predict and understand long-term patient outcomes in order to make meaningful interventions. However, despite innovations in this area, deep learning models often struggle to match performance of shallow linear models in predicting these outcomes, making it difficult to leverage such techniques in practice. In this work, motivated by the task of clinical prediction from insurance claims, we present a new technique called reverse distillation which pretrains deep models by using high-performing linear models for initialization. We make use of the longitudinal structure of insurance claims datasets to develop Self Attention with Reverse Distillation, or SARD, an architecture that utilizes a combination of contextual embedding, temporal embedding and self-attention mechanisms and most critically is trained via reverse distillation. SARD outperforms state-of-the-art methods on multiple clinical prediction outcomes, with ablation studies revealing that reverse distillation is a primary driver of these improvements.


The 2018 Survey: AI and the Future of Humans

#artificialintelligence

"Please think forward to the year 2030. Analysts expect that people will become even more dependent on networked artificial intelligence (AI) in complex digital systems. Some say we will continue on the historic arc of augmenting our lives with mostly positive results as we widely implement these networked tools. Some say our increasing dependence on these AI and related systems is likely to lead to widespread difficulties. Our question: By 2030, do you think it is most likely that advancing AI and related technology systems will enhance human capacities and empower them? That is, most of the time, will most people be better off than they are today? Or is it most likely that advancing AI and related technology systems will lessen human autonomy and agency to such an extent that most people will not be better off than the way things are today? Please explain why you chose the answer you did and sketch out a vision of how the human-machine/AI collaboration will function in 2030.


The Future of AI Part 3

#artificialintelligence

This article will focus on the impact of AI, 5G, Edge Computing on the healthcare sector in the 2020s as well as a section on Quantum Computing's potential impact on AI, healthcare and financial services. The next in the series will deal with how we can use AI in the fight against climate change including the protection of the Amazon, smart cities and AGI. For those who are new to AI, Machine Learning and Deep Learning, I recommend taking a look at the following article entitled "An Introduction to AI." I will refer to Machine Learning and Deep Learning as being subsets of AI. Furthermore, this article is non-exhaustive in relation to potential applications of AI to healthcare and Quantum Computing to various sectors of the economy. The reason for the focus on AI in healthcare is in light of recent articles by a few senior medical practitioners in the US expressing concern about the role of AI in healthcare. Some of the concerns expressed such as the need for improved sharing of data ...


The Future of AI Part 3

#artificialintelligence

This article will focus on the impact of AI, 5G, Edge Computing on the healthcare sector in the 2020s as well as a section on Quantum Computing's potential impact on AI, healthcare and financial services. The next in the series will deal with how we can use AI in the fight against climate change including the protection of the Amazon, smart cities and AGI. For those who are new to AI, Machine Learning and Deep Learning, I recommend taking a look at the following article entitled "An Introduction to AI." I will refer to Machine Learning and Deep Learning as being subsets of AI. Furthermore, this article is non-exhaustive in relation to potential applications of AI to healthcare and Quantum Computing to various sectors of the economy. The reason for the focus on AI in healthcare is in light of recent articles by a few senior medical practitioners in the US expressing concern about the role of AI in healthcare. Some of the concerns expressed such as the need for improved sharing of data ...


Are we ready for the AI driven precision healthcare revolution?

#artificialintelligence

Precision healthcare adds an efficiency and accuracy to healthcare treatments. With precision healthcare, Doctors can potentially develop targeted precise treatment and therapies for a population as well as an individual. This can improve patient treatment to large populations in countries like India. Current healthcare systems are primarily focussed on having treatments and solutions that can treat large population with similar symptoms. It's based on evidence and data which comes from a series of medical tests on a patient.


Adversarial Attacks Against Medical Deep Learning Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The discovery of adversarial examples has raised concerns about the practical deployment of deep learning systems. In this paper, we argue that the field of medicine may be uniquely susceptible to adversarial attacks, both in terms of monetary incentives and technical vulnerability. To this end, we outline the healthcare economy and the incentives it creates for fraud, we extend adversarial attacks to three popular medical imaging tasks, and we provide concrete examples of how and why such attacks could be realistically carried out. For each of our representative medical deep learning classifiers, both white and black box attacks were both effective and human-imperceptible. We urge caution in employing deep learning systems in clinical settings, and encourage research into domain-specific defense strategies.


Why AI is about to make some of the highest-paid doctors obsolete - TechRepublic

#artificialintelligence

Radiologists bring home $395,000 each year, on average. In the near future, however, those numbers promise to drop to $0. Don't blame Obamacare, however, or even Trumpcare (whatever that turns out to be), but rather blame the rise of machine learning and its applicability to these two areas of medicine that are heavily focused on pattern matching, a job better done by a machine than a human. This is the argument put forward by Dr. Ziad Obermeyer of Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women's Hospital and Ezekiel Emanuel, PhD, of the University of Pennsylvania, in an article for the New England Journal of Medicine, one of the medical profession's most prestigious journals. Machine learning will produce big winners and losers in healthcare, according to the authors, with radiologists and pathologists among the biggest losers.