Collaborating Authors


Analyzing 25 Years of Privacy Policies with Machine Learning


A recent study has used machine learning analysis techniques to chart the readability, usefulness, length and complexity of more than 50,000 privacy policies on popular websites in a period covering 25 years from 1996 to 2021. The research concludes that the average reader would need to devote 400 hours of'annual reading time' (more than an hour a day) in order to penetrate the growing word counts, obfuscating language and vague language use that characterize the modern privacy policies of some of the most-frequented websites. 'The average policy length has almost doubled in the last ten years, with 2159 words in March 2011 and 4191 words in March 2021, and almost quadrupled since 2000 (1146 words).' The mean word count and sentence count among the corpus studied, over a 25 year period. Though the rate of increase in length spiked when the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act (CCPA) protections came into force, the paper discounts these variations as'small effect sizes' which appear to be insignificant against the broader long-term trend.

The Role of Social Movements, Coalitions, and Workers in Resisting Harmful Artificial Intelligence and Contributing to the Development of Responsible AI Artificial Intelligence

There is mounting public concern over the influence that AI based systems has in our society. Coalitions in all sectors are acting worldwide to resist hamful applications of AI. From indigenous people addressing the lack of reliable data, to smart city stakeholders, to students protesting the academic relationships with sex trafficker and MIT donor Jeffery Epstein, the questionable ethics and values of those heavily investing in and profiting from AI are under global scrutiny. There are biased, wrongful, and disturbing assumptions embedded in AI algorithms that could get locked in without intervention. Our best human judgment is needed to contain AI's harmful impact. Perhaps one of the greatest contributions of AI will be to make us ultimately understand how important human wisdom truly is in life on earth.