Sepsis is one of the leading causes of death in Intensive Care Units (ICU). The strategy for treating sepsis involves the infusion of intravenous (IV) fluids and administration of antibiotics. Determining the optimal quantity of IV fluids is a challenging problem due to the complexity of a patient's physiology. In this study, we develop a data-driven optimization solution that derives the optimal quantity of IV fluids for individual patients. The proposed method minimizes the probability of severe outcomes by controlling the prescribed quantity of IV fluids and utilizes human-in-the-loop artificial intelligence. We demonstrate the performance of our model on 1122 ICU patients with sepsis diagnosis extracted from the MIMIC-III dataset. The results show that, on average, our model can reduce mortality by 22%. This study has the potential to help physicians synthesize optimal, patient-specific treatment strategies.
This thesis focuses on the research and development of the Hemodynamic Tissue Signature (HTS) method: an unsupervised machine learning approach to describe the vascular heterogeneity of glioblastomas by means of perfusion MRI analysis. The HTS builds on the concept of habitats. An habitat is defined as a sub-region of the lesion with a particular MRI profile describing a specific physiological behavior. The HTS method delineates four habitats within the glioblastoma: the High Angiogenic Tumor (HAT) habitat, as the most perfused region of the enhancing tumor; the Low Angiogenic Tumor (LAT) habitat, as the region of the enhancing tumor with a lower angiogenic profile; the potentially Infiltrated Peripheral Edema (IPE) habitat, as the non-enhancing region adjacent to the tumor with elevated perfusion indexes; and the Vasogenic Peripheral Edema (VPE) habitat, as the remaining edema of the lesion with the lowest perfusion profile. The results of this thesis have been published in ten scientific contributions, including top-ranked journals and conferences in the areas of Medical Informatics, Statistics and Probability, Radiology & Nuclear Medicine, Machine Learning and Data Mining and Biomedical Engineering. An industrial patent registered in Spain (ES201431289A), Europe (EP3190542A1) and EEUU (US20170287133A1) was also issued, summarizing the efforts of the thesis to generate tangible assets besides the academic revenue obtained from research publications. Finally, the methods, technologies and original ideas conceived in this thesis led to the foundation of ONCOANALYTICS CDX, a company framed into the business model of companion diagnostics for pharmaceutical compounds, thought as a vehicle to facilitate the industrialization of the ONCOhabitats technology.
Narratives are fundamental to our perception of the world and are pervasive in all activities that involve the representation of events in time. Yet, modern online information systems do not incorporate narratives in their representation of events occurring over time. This article aims to bridge this gap, combining the theory of narrative representations with the data from modern online systems. We make three key contributions: a theory-driven computational representation of narratives, a novel extraction algorithm to obtain these representations from data, and an evaluation of our approach. In particular, given the effectiveness of visual metaphors, we employ a route map metaphor to design a narrative map representation. The narrative map representation illustrates the events and stories in the narrative as a series of landmarks and routes on the map. Each element of our representation is backed by a corresponding element from formal narrative theory, thus providing a solid theoretical background to our method. Our approach extracts the underlying graph structure of the narrative map using a novel optimization technique focused on maximizing coherence while respecting structural and coverage constraints. We showcase the effectiveness of our approach by performing a user evaluation to assess the quality of the representation, metaphor, and visualization. Evaluation results indicate that the Narrative Map representation is a powerful method to communicate complex narratives to individuals. Our findings have implications for intelligence analysts, computational journalists, and misinformation researchers.
Emergency response to incidents such as accidents, medical calls, and fires is one of the most pressing problems faced by communities across the globe. In the last fifty years, researchers have developed statistical, analytical, and algorithmic approaches for designing emergency response management (ERM) systems. In this survey, we present models for incident prediction, resource allocation, and dispatch for emergency incidents. We highlight the strengths and weaknesses of prior work in this domain and explore the similarities and differences between different modeling paradigms. Finally, we present future research directions. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first comprehensive survey that explores the entirety of ERM systems.
Intelligent signal processing for wireless communications is a vital task in modern wireless systems, but it faces new challenges because of network heterogeneity, diverse service requirements, a massive number of connections, and various radio characteristics. Owing to recent advancements in big data and computing technologies, artificial intelligence (AI) has become a useful tool for radio signal processing and has enabled the realization of intelligent radio signal processing. This survey covers four intelligent signal processing topics for the wireless physical layer, including modulation classification, signal detection, beamforming, and channel estimation. In particular, each theme is presented in a dedicated section, starting with the most fundamental principles, followed by a review of up-to-date studies and a summary. To provide the necessary background, we first present a brief overview of AI techniques such as machine learning, deep learning, and federated learning. Finally, we highlight a number of research challenges and future directions in the area of intelligent radio signal processing. We expect this survey to be a good source of information for anyone interested in intelligent radio signal processing, and the perspectives we provide therein will stimulate many more novel ideas and contributions in the future.
Much has been said about the fusion of bio-inspired optimization algorithms and Deep Learning models for several purposes: from the discovery of network topologies and hyper-parametric configurations with improved performance for a given task, to the optimization of the model's parameters as a replacement for gradient-based solvers. Indeed, the literature is rich in proposals showcasing the application of assorted nature-inspired approaches for these tasks. In this work we comprehensively review and critically examine contributions made so far based on three axes, each addressing a fundamental question in this research avenue: a) optimization and taxonomy (Why?), including a historical perspective, definitions of optimization problems in Deep Learning, and a taxonomy associated with an in-depth analysis of the literature, b) critical methodological analysis (How?), which together with two case studies, allows us to address learned lessons and recommendations for good practices following the analysis of the literature, and c) challenges and new directions of research (What can be done, and what for?). In summary, three axes - optimization and taxonomy, critical analysis, and challenges - which outline a complete vision of a merger of two technologies drawing up an exciting future for this area of fusion research.
Cloud computing (CC) is a centralized computing paradigm that accumulates resources centrally and provides these resources to users through Internet. Although CC holds a large number of resources, it may not be acceptable by real-time mobile applications, as it is usually far away from users geographically. On the other hand, edge computing (EC), which distributes resources to the network edge, enjoys increasing popularity in the applications with low-latency and high-reliability requirements. EC provides resources in a decentralized manner, which can respond to users' requirements faster than the normal CC, but with limited computing capacities. As both CC and EC are resource-sensitive, several big issues arise, such as how to conduct job scheduling, resource allocation, and task offloading, which significantly influence the performance of the whole system. To tackle these issues, many optimization problems have been formulated. These optimization problems usually have complex properties, such as non-convexity and NP-hardness, which may not be addressed by the traditional convex optimization-based solutions. Computational intelligence (CI), consisting of a set of nature-inspired computational approaches, recently exhibits great potential in addressing these optimization problems in CC and EC. This paper provides an overview of research problems in CC and EC and recent progresses in addressing them with the help of CI techniques. Informative discussions and future research trends are also presented, with the aim of offering insights to the readers and motivating new research directions.
We develop an Evolutionary Markov Chain Monte Carlo (EMCMC) algorithm for sampling spatial partitions that lie within a large and complex spatial state space. Our algorithm combines the advantages of evolutionary algorithms (EAs) as optimization heuristics for state space traversal and the theoretical convergence properties of Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithms for sampling from unknown distributions. Local optimality information that is identified via a directed search by our optimization heuristic is used to adaptively update a Markov chain in a promising direction within the framework of a Multiple-Try Metropolis Markov Chain model that incorporates a generalized Metropolis-Hasting ratio. We further expand the reach of our EMCMC algorithm by harnessing the computational power afforded by massively parallel architecture through the integration of a parallel EA framework that guides Markov chains running in parallel.
Analyzing encircling situation is the most crucial part of autonomous adaptation. Since there are many unknown and constantly changing factors in the real environment, momentary adjustment to the consistently alternating circumstances is highly required for addressing autonomy. To respond properly to changing environment, an utterly self-ruling vehicle ought to have the capacity to realize/comprehend its particular position and the surrounding environment. However, these vehicles extremely rely on human involvement to resolve entangled missions that cannot be precisely characterized in advance, which restricts their applications and accuracy. Reducing dependence on human supervision can be achieved by improving level of autonomy. Over the previous decades, autonomy and mission planning have been extensively researched on different structures and diverse conditions; nevertheless, aiming at robust mission planning in extreme conditions, here we provide exhaustive study of UVs autonomy as well as its related properties in internal and external situation awareness. In the following discussion, different difficulties in the scope of AUVs and UAVs will be discussed.
The Traveling Salesman Problem is one of the most intensively studied combinatorial optimization problems due both to its range of real-world applications and its computational complexity. When combined with the Set Covering Problem, it raises even more issues related to tractability and scalability. We study a combined Set Covering and Traveling Salesman problem and provide a mixed integer programming formulation to solve the problem. Motivated by applications where the optimal policy needs to be updated on a regular basis and repetitively solving this via MIP can be computationally expensive, we propose a machine learning approach to effectively deal with this problem by providing an opportunity to learn from historical optimal solutions that are derived from the MIP formulation. We also present a case study using the vaccine distribution chain of the World Health Organization, and provide numerical results with data derived from four countries in sub-Saharan Africa.