Many traditional philosophical questions take new twists in the context of intelligent machines. For example: What is a mind? What is consciousness? Where do we draw the line on responsibility for actions when dealing with robots, computers, programming? Do human beings occupy a privileged place in the universe?
The starting point of modern information technology has as a starting point the year 1945 and the machine that defeated the Enigma code, the ENIAC, and the English mathematician and cryptanalyst, Alan Turing. "The original question, can machines think?" Forty years of development, starting from ENIAC, led to IBM's supercomputer Deep Blue. In 1985, Garry Kasparov became the world champion in chess beating 32 opponents, simultaneously. Deep Blue's predecessor, "Deep Thought", lost two times by the world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1989.
AI wasn't born out of nothing in the 21st century. It grew from a number of roots. Quipu is a method for keeping and passing information used by the Inca people in ancient times. Quipu uses nodes of different colors and materials. Sometimes there can be hundreds of nodes that were tied in different ways and at different heights to express differences in meaning.
In March, Chipotle introduced Chippy, an AI-powered robotic arm that makes intentionally imperfect tortilla chips; some with slightly more salt, others with a more distinct tang of lime. And Chippy isn't the only robot being put to work; Cecilia.ai, a mechanical mixologist, is being implemented in bars around the world to serve up the perfect margarita while chatting with customers using conversational AI. Since the mid-2010s, the world has been advancing Industry 4.0, which is a combination of artificial intelligence (AI), additive manufacturing, and the Internet of Things (IoT). Experts argue that the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the shift to Industry 5.0 and that soon AI-powered platforms and robots will largely take on monotonous tasks that no longer require human labor. So how do robots learn to fulfill these tasks?
Summary: A new deep learning algorithm is able to quantify arousal and awareness in humans at the same time. New research supported by the EU-funded HBP SGA3 and DoCMA projects is giving scientists new insight into human consciousness. Led by Korea University and projects' partner University of Liège (Belgium), the research team has developed an explainable consciousness indicator (ECI) to explore different components of consciousness. Their findings were published in the journal Nature Communications. Consciousness can be described as having two components: arousal (i.e.
The controversial idea that quantum effects in the brain can explain consciousness has passed a key test. Experiments show that anaesthetic drugs reduce how long tiny structures found in brain cells can sustain suspected quantum excitations. As anaesthetic switches consciousness on and off, the results may implicate these structures, called microtubules, as a nexus of our conscious experience.
Constructing humanlike artificial intelligence often starts with deconstructing humans. Take fingerprints: When holding soapy dishes, we intuitively adjust our grip based on our fingerprint structure. It just doesn't cross our mind, because we chalk it up to reflex – and for the longest time, so did scientists. No one had any equations to unravel how this works because, well, it didn't matter much. But the rise of robotics has complicated things.