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Simulation of Human Behavior


A cognitive model of planning

Classics

This paper presents a cognitive model of the planning process. The model generalizes the theoretical architecture of the Hearsay-II system. Thus, it assumes that planning comprises the activities of a variety of cognitive “specialists.” Each specialist can suggest certain kinds of decisions for incorporation into the plan in progress. These include decisions about: (a) how to approach the planning problem; (b) what knowledge bears on the problem; (c) what kinds of actions to try to plan; (d) what specific actions to plan; and (e) how to allocate cognitive resources during planning. Within each of these categories, different specialists suggest decisions at different levels of abstraction. The activities of the various specialists are not coordinated in any systematic way. Instead, the specialists operate opportunistically, suggesting decisions whenever promising opportunities arise. The paper presents a detailed account of the model and illustrates its assumptions with a “thinking aloud” protocol. It also describes the performance of a computer simulation of the model. The paper contrasts the proposed model with successive refinement models and attempts to resolve apparent differences between the two points of view. Cognitive Science 3:275-310.


Cognitive development

Classics

See also:Pages 110-117 from Cognitive Development, third edition, by John H. Flavell, Patricia H. Miller and Scott A. Miller.John H. Flavell. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: Children's Knowledge About the Mind. Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 50: 21-45 (Volume publication date February 1999).John H Flavell, Stage-related properties of cognitive development, Cognitive Psychology, Volume 2, Issue 4, October 1971, Pages 421-453.John H. Flavell. On Cognitive Development. In Child Development, Vol. 53, No. 1 (Feb., 1982), pp. 1-10, Published by: Wiley.John H. Flavell. The development of children's knowledge about the mind: From cognitive connections to mental representations. In Developing Theories of Mind, Janet W. Astington, Paul L. Harris, David R. Olson. CUP Archive, 1990, pp. 244-266.Cognitive development: Past, present, and future. Flavell, John H. Developmental Psychology, Vol 28(6), Nov 1992, 998-1005.Thinking about People Thinking about People Thinking about...: A Study of Social Cognitive Development. Patricia H. Miller, Frank S. Kessel and John H. Flavell. Child Development, Vol. 41, No. 3 (Sep., 1970), pp. 613-623, Published by: Wiley.Social Cognitive Development: Frontiers and Possible Futures. John H. Flavell, Lee Ross, Social Science Research Council (USA). Committee on Social and Affective Development During Childhood. CUP Archive, May 29, 1981.The Development of Intuitions about Cognitive Cueing. F. Robert Gordon and John H. Flavell. Child Development, Vol. 48, No. 3 (Sep., 1977), pp. 1027-1033. Published by: Wiley.Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall


Computers and Thought

Classics

E.A. Feigenbaum and J. Feldman (Eds.). Computers and Thought. McGraw-Hill, 1963. This collection includes twenty classic papers by such pioneers as A. M. Turing and Marvin Minsky who were behind the pivotal advances in artificially simulating human thought processes with computers. All Parts are available as downloadable pdf files; most individual chapters are also available separately. COMPUTING MACHINERY AND INTELLIGENCE. A. M. Turing. CHESS-PLAYING PROGRAMS AND THE PROBLEM OF COMPLEXITY. Allen Newell, J.C. Shaw and H.A. Simon. SOME STUDIES IN MACHINE LEARNING USING THE GAME OF CHECKERS. A. L. Samuel. EMPIRICAL EXPLORATIONS WITH THE LOGIC THEORY MACHINE: A CASE STUDY IN HEURISTICS. Allen Newell J.C. Shaw and H.A. Simon. REALIZATION OF A GEOMETRY-THEOREM PROVING MACHINE. H. Gelernter. EMPIRICAL EXPLORATIONS OF THE GEOMETRY-THEOREM PROVING MACHINE. H. Gelernter, J.R. Hansen, and D. W. Loveland. SUMMARY OF A HEURISTIC LINE BALANCING PROCEDURE. Fred M. Tonge. A HEURISTIC PROGRAM THAT SOLVES SYMBOLIC INTEGRATION PROBLEMS IN FRESHMAN CALCULUS. James R. Slagle. BASEBALL: AN AUTOMATIC QUESTION ANSWERER. Green, Bert F. Jr., Alice K. Wolf, Carol Chomsky, and Kenneth Laughery. INFERENTIAL MEMORY AS THE BASIS OF MACHINES WHICH UNDERSTAND NATURAL LANGUAGE. Robert K. Lindsay. PATTERN RECOGNITION BY MACHINE. Oliver G. Selfridge and Ulric Neisser. A PATTERN-RECOGNITION PROGRAM THAT GENERATES, EVALUATES, AND ADJUSTS ITS OWN OPERATORS. Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler. GPS, A PROGRAM THAT SIMULATES HUMAN THOUGHT. Allen Newell and H.A. Simon. THE SIMULATION OF VERBAL LEARNING BEHAVIOR. Edward A. Feigenbaum. PROGRAMMING A MODEL OF HUMAN CONCEPT FORMULATION. Earl B. Hunt and Carl I. Hovland. SIMULATION OF BEHAVIOR IN THE BINARY CHOICE EXPERIMENT Julian Feldman. A MODEL OF THE TRUST INVESTMENT PROCESS. Geoffrey P. E. Clarkson. A COMPUTER MODEL OF ELEMENTARY SOCIAL BEHAVIOR. John T. Gullahorn and Jeanne E. Gullahorn. TOWARD INTELLIGENT MACHINES. Paul Armer. STEPS TOWARD ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. Marvin Minsky. A SELECTED DESCRIPTOR-INDEXED BIBLIOGRAPHY TO THE LITERATURE ON ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE. Marvin Minsky.