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Swim Transformer is all you need for Computer Vision

#artificialintelligence

The title might be a bit of a stretch, but let's look at why Swin Transformer is the latest State-Of-The-Art architecture. The Swin Transformer is the latest addition to the Transformer-based architecture for computer vision tasks. The Swin Transformer has proved to be a game-changer in computer vision tasks like object detection, image classification, semantic segmentation, and other vision tasks. The Swin Transformer uses Patch Merging and shifted window-based self-attention to achieve hierarchical representation and, reduced computational complexity respectively. In this post, we'll deep dive into the concepts and working of Swin Transformer and discuss why it performs well on computer vision tasks.


A brief history of AI: how to prevent another winter (a critical review)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The field of artificial intelligence (AI), regarded as one of the most enigmatic areas of science, has witnessed exponential growth in the past decade including a remarkably wide array of applications, having already impacted our everyday lives. Advances in computing power and the design of sophisticated AI algorithms have enabled computers to outperform humans in a variety of tasks, especially in the areas of computer vision and speech recognition. Yet, AI's path has never been smooth, having essentially fallen apart twice in its lifetime ('winters' of AI), both after periods of popular success ('summers' of AI). We provide a brief rundown of AI's evolution over the course of decades, highlighting its crucial moments and major turning points from inception to the present. In doing so, we attempt to learn, anticipate the future, and discuss what steps may be taken to prevent another 'winter'.


Pinterest launches hair pattern search with BIPOC users in mind

Engadget

Pinterest has launched a new search feature that could make it easier for Black, Brown, Indigenous, Latinx and other POC users to find hair inspiration that would suit their hair types. The visual discovery website has introduced hair pattern search, it said, with BIPOC users in mind. This new feature uses computer vision-powered object detection to enable users to refine their searches by six different hair patterns: protective, coily, curly, wavy, straight and shaved/bald. Now, after users search for broader terms like "summer hairstyles," "glam hair" or "short hair," they'll find new hair pattern buttons that will narrow down the results. The feature is now live in the US, UK, Ireland, Canada, Australia and New Zealand on desktop, as well as on iOS and Android. It will roll out to more locations over the coming months.


On the Opportunities and Risks of Foundation Models

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

AI is undergoing a paradigm shift with the rise of models (e.g., BERT, DALL-E, GPT-3) that are trained on broad data at scale and are adaptable to a wide range of downstream tasks. We call these models foundation models to underscore their critically central yet incomplete character. This report provides a thorough account of the opportunities and risks of foundation models, ranging from their capabilities (e.g., language, vision, robotics, reasoning, human interaction) and technical principles(e.g., model architectures, training procedures, data, systems, security, evaluation, theory) to their applications (e.g., law, healthcare, education) and societal impact (e.g., inequity, misuse, economic and environmental impact, legal and ethical considerations). Though foundation models are based on standard deep learning and transfer learning, their scale results in new emergent capabilities,and their effectiveness across so many tasks incentivizes homogenization. Homogenization provides powerful leverage but demands caution, as the defects of the foundation model are inherited by all the adapted models downstream. Despite the impending widespread deployment of foundation models, we currently lack a clear understanding of how they work, when they fail, and what they are even capable of due to their emergent properties. To tackle these questions, we believe much of the critical research on foundation models will require deep interdisciplinary collaboration commensurate with their fundamentally sociotechnical nature.


When Pigs Fly: Contextual Reasoning in Synthetic and Natural Scenes

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Context is of fundamental importance to both human and machine vision -- an object in the air is more likely to be an airplane, than a pig. The rich notion of context incorporates several aspects including physics rules, statistical co-occurrences, and relative object sizes, among others. While previous works have crowd-sourced out-of-context photographs from the web to study scene context, controlling the nature and extent of contextual violations has been an extremely daunting task. Here we introduce a diverse, synthetic Out-of-Context Dataset (OCD) with fine-grained control over scene context. By leveraging a 3D simulation engine, we systematically control the gravity, object co-occurrences and relative sizes across 36 object categories in a virtual household environment. We then conduct a series of experiments to gain insights into the impact of contextual cues on both human and machine vision using OCD. First, we conduct psycho-physics experiments to establish a human benchmark for out-of-context recognition, and then compare it with state-of-the-art computer vision models to quantify the gap between the two. Finally, we propose a context-aware recognition transformer model, fusing object and contextual information via multi-head attention. Our model captures useful information for contextual reasoning, enabling human-level performance and significantly better robustness in out-of-context conditions compared to baseline models across OCD and other existing out-of-context natural image datasets. All source code and data are publicly available https://github.com/kreimanlab/WhenPigsFlyContext.


Projection: A Mechanism for Human-like Reasoning in Artificial Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper focuses on the first. It encompasses knowledge representation and reasoning, with a focus here on (non-classical) reasoning (a second companion paper will focus on representation). The focus is on the act of reasoning that determines if some data can be seen (or interpreted) as belonging to a particular class, not on long chains of reasoning using diverse knowledge. A significant weakness of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems relative to humans is the inability to apply existing knowledge to a new problem, or to a situation that varies from what they were programmed for or trained for (also called transfer ability in some contexts). This causes systems to fail to recognise objects or activities in new settings, or to fail to adapt skills to variations (Davis and Marcus, 2015; Ersen et al., 2017).


ViLT: Vision-and-Language Transformer Without Convolution or Region Supervision

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Vision-and-Language Pretraining (VLP) has improved performance on various joint vision-and-language downstream tasks. Current approaches for VLP heavily rely on image feature extraction processes, most of which involve region supervisions (e.g., object detection) and the convolutional architecture (e.g., ResNet). Although disregarded in the literature, we find it problematic in terms of both (1) efficiency/speed, that simply extracting input features requires much more computation than the actual multimodal interaction steps; and (2) expressive power, as it is upper bounded to the expressive power of the visual encoder and its predefined visual vocabulary. In this paper, we present a minimal VLP model, Vision-and-Language Transformer (ViLT), monolithic in the sense that processing of visual inputs is drastically simplified to just the same convolution-free manner that we process textual inputs. We show that ViLT is up to 60 times faster than previous VLP models, yet with competitive or better downstream task performance.


On the Control of Attentional Processes in Vision

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The study of attentional processing in vision has a long and deep history. Recently, several papers have presented insightful perspectives into how the coordination of multiple attentional functions in the brain might occur. These begin with experimental observations and the authors propose structures, processes, and computations that might explain those observations. Here, we consider a perspective that past works have not, as a complementary approach to the experimentally-grounded ones. We approach the same problem as past authors but from the other end of the computational spectrum, from the problem nature, as Marr's Computational Level would prescribe. What problem must the brain solve when orchestrating attentional processes in order to successfully complete one of the myriad possible visuospatial tasks at which we as humans excel? The hope, of course, is for the approaches to eventually meet and thus form a complete theory, but this is likely not soon. We make the first steps towards this by addressing the necessity of attentional control, examining the breadth and computational difficulty of the visuospatial and attentional tasks seen in human behavior, and suggesting a sketch of how attentional control might arise in the brain. The key conclusions of this paper are that an executive controller is necessary for human attentional function in vision, and that there is a 'first principles' computational approach to its understanding that is complementary to the previous approaches that focus on modelling or learning from experimental observations directly.


ScaleNAS: One-Shot Learning of Scale-Aware Representations for Visual Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Scale variance among different sizes of body parts and objects is a challenging problem for visual recognition tasks. Existing works usually design dedicated backbone or apply Neural architecture Search(NAS) for each task to tackle this challenge. However, existing works impose significant limitations on the design or search space. To solve these problems, we present ScaleNAS, a one-shot learning method for exploring scale-aware representations. ScaleNAS solves multiple tasks at a time by searching multi-scale feature aggregation. ScaleNAS adopts a flexible search space that allows an arbitrary number of blocks and cross-scale feature fusions. To cope with the high search cost incurred by the flexible space, ScaleNAS employs one-shot learning for multi-scale supernet driven by grouped sampling and evolutionary search. Without further retraining, ScaleNet can be directly deployed for different visual recognition tasks with superior performance. We use ScaleNAS to create high-resolution models for two different tasks, ScaleNet-P for human pose estimation and ScaleNet-S for semantic segmentation. ScaleNet-P and ScaleNet-S outperform existing manually crafted and NAS-based methods in both tasks. When applying ScaleNet-P to bottom-up human pose estimation, it surpasses the state-of-the-art HigherHRNet. In particular, ScaleNet-P4 achieves 71.6% AP on COCO test-dev, achieving new state-of-the-art result.


Rearrangement: A Challenge for Embodied AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We describe a framework for research and evaluation in Embodied AI. Our proposal is based on a canonical task: Rearrangement. A standard task can focus the development of new techniques and serve as a source of trained models that can be transferred to other settings. In the rearrangement task, the goal is to bring a given physical environment into a specified state. The goal state can be specified by object poses, by images, by a description in language, or by letting the agent experience the environment in the goal state. We characterize rearrangement scenarios along different axes and describe metrics for benchmarking rearrangement performance. To facilitate research and exploration, we present experimental testbeds of rearrangement scenarios in four different simulation environments. We anticipate that other datasets will be released and new simulation platforms will be built to support training of rearrangement agents and their deployment on physical systems.