In this paper we establish a link between preferential semantics for description logics and self-organising maps, which have been proposed as possible candidates to explain the psychological mechanisms underlying category generalisation. In particular, we show that a concept-wise multipreference semantics, which takes into account preferences with respect to different concepts and has been recently proposed for defeasible description logics, can be used to to provide a logical interpretation of SOMs. We also provide a logical interpretation of SOMs in terms of a fuzzy description logic as well as a probabilistic account.
Description logics (DLs) are standard knowledge representation languages for modelling ontologies, i.e. knowledge about concepts and the relations between them. Unfortunately, DL ontologies are difficult to learn from data and time-consuming to encode manually. As a result, ontologies for broad domains are almost inevitably incomplete. In recent years, several data-driven approaches have been proposed for automatically extending such ontologies. One family of methods rely on characterizations of concepts that are derived from text descriptions. While such characterizations do not capture ontological knowledge directly, they encode information about the similarity between different concepts, which can be exploited for filling in the gaps in existing ontologies. To this end, several inductive inference mechanisms have already been proposed, but these have been defined and used in a heuristic fashion. In this paper, we instead propose an inductive inference mechanism which is based on a clear model-theoretic semantics, and can thus be tightly integrated with standard deductive reasoning. We particularly focus on interpolation, a powerful commonsense reasoning mechanism which is closely related to cognitive models of category-based induction. Apart from the formalization of the underlying semantics, as our main technical contribution we provide computational complexity bounds for reasoning in EL with this interpolation mechanism.
This paper presents a novel SHOI tableau calculus which incorporates algebraic reasoning for deciding ontology consistency. Numerical restrictions imposed by nominals, existential and universal restrictions are encoded into a set of linear inequalities. Column generation and branch-and-price algorithms are used to solve these inequalities. Our preliminary experiments indicate that this calculus performs better on SHOI ontologies than standard tableau methods.
We present a consequence-based calculus for concept subsumption and classification in the description logic ALCHOIQ, which extends ALC with role hierarchies, inverse roles, number restrictions, and nominals. By using standard transformations, our calculus extends to SROIQ, which covers all of OWL 2 DL except for datatypes. A key feature of our calculus is its pay-as-you-go behaviour: unlike existing algorithms, our calculus is worst-case optimal for all the well-known proper fragments of ALCHOIQ, albeit not for the full logic.
We study anti-unification for the description logic EL and introduce thenotion of least general generalisation, which generalises simultaneously leastcommon subsumer and concept matching. The idea of generalisation of twoconcepts is to detect maximal similarities between them, and to abstract overtheir differences uniformly. We demonstrate that a finite minimal complete setof generalisations for ELconcepts always exists and establish complexitybounds for computing them. Wepresent an anti-unification algorithm that computes generalisations with afixed skeleton, study its properties and report on preliminary experimental evaluation.
We present a novel reasoning calculus for the description logic SHOIQ^+---a knowledge representation formalism with applications in areas such as the Semantic Web. Unnecessary nondeterminism and the construction of large models are two primary sources of inefficiency in the tableau-based reasoning calculi used in state-of-the-art reasoners. In order to reduce nondeterminism, we base our calculus on hypertableau and hyperresolution calculi, which we extend with a blocking condition to ensure termination. In order to reduce the size of the constructed models, we introduce anywhere pairwise blocking. We also present an improved nominal introduction rule that ensures termination in the presence of nominals, inverse roles, and number restrictions---a combination of DL constructs that has proven notoriously difficult to handle. Our implementation shows significant performance improvements over state-of-the-art reasoners on several well-known ontologies.
We propose a novel, type-elimination-based method for reasoning in the description logic SHIQbs including DL-safe rules. To this end, we first establish a knowledge compilation method converting the terminological part of an ALCIb knowledge base into an ordered binary decision diagram (OBDD) which represents a canonical model. This OBDD can in turn be transformed into disjunctive Datalog and merged with the assertional part of the knowledge base in order to perform combined reasoning. In order to leverage our technique for full SHIQbs, we provide a stepwise reduction from SHIQbs to ALCIb that preserves satisfiability and entailment of positive and negative ground facts. The proposed technique is shown to be worst case optimal w.r.t. combined and data complexity and easily admits extensions with ground conjunctive queries.
It is widely recognized today that the management of imprecision and vagueness will yield more intelligent and realistic knowledge-based applications. Description Logics (DLs) are a family of knowledge representation languages that have gained considerable attention the last decade, mainly due to their decidability and the existence of empirically high performance of reasoning algorithms. In this paper, we extend the well known fuzzy ALC DL to the fuzzy SHIN DL, which extends the fuzzy ALC DL with transitive role axioms (S), inverse roles (I), role hierarchies (H) and number restrictions (N). We illustrate why transitive role axioms are difficult to handle in the presence of fuzzy interpretations and how to handle them properly. Then we extend these results by adding role hierarchies and finally number restrictions. The main contributions of the paper are the decidability proof of the fuzzy DL languages fuzzy-SI and fuzzy-SHIN, as well as decision procedures for the knowledge base satisfiability problem of the fuzzy-SI and fuzzy-SHIN.
Matchmaking arises when supply and demand meet in an electronic marketplace, or when agents search for a web service to perform some task, or even when recruiting agencies match curricula and job profiles. In such open environments, the objective of a matchmaking process is to discover best available offers to a given request. We address the problem of matchmaking from a knowledge representation perspective, with a formalization based on Description Logics. We devise Concept Abduction and Concept Contraction as non-monotonic inferences in Description Logics suitable for modeling matchmaking in a logical framework, and prove some related complexity results. We also present reasonable algorithms for semantic matchmaking based on the devised inferences, and prove that they obey to some commonsense properties. Finally, we report on the implementation of the proposed matchmaking framework, which has been used both as a mediator in e-marketplaces and for semantic web services discovery.