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Knowledge Association with Hyperbolic Knowledge Graph Embeddings

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Capturing associations for knowledge graphs (KGs) through entity alignment, entity type inference and other related tasks benefits NLP applications with comprehensive knowledge representations. Recent related methods built on Euclidean embeddings are challenged by the hierarchical structures and different scales of KGs. They also depend on high embedding dimensions to realize enough expressiveness. Differently, we explore with low-dimensional hyperbolic embeddings for knowledge association. We propose a hyperbolic relational graph neural network for KG embedding and capture knowledge associations with a hyperbolic transformation. Extensive experiments on entity alignment and type inference demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our method.


The Tensor Brain: Semantic Decoding for Perception and Memory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We analyse perception and memory using mathematical models for knowledge graphs and tensors to gain insights in the corresponding functionalities of the human mind. Our discussion is based on the concept of propositional sentences consisting of \textit{subject-predicate-object} (SPO) triples for expressing elementary facts. SPO sentences are the basis for most natural languages but might also be important for explicit perception and declarative memories, as well as intra-brain communication and the ability to argue and reason. A set of SPO sentences can be described as a knowledge graph, which can be transformed into an adjacency tensor. We introduce tensor models, where concepts have dual representations as indices and associated embeddings, two constructs we believe are essential for the understanding of implicit and explicit perception and memory in the brain. We argue that a biological realization of perception and memory imposes constraints on information processing. In particular, we propose that explicit perception and declarative memories require a semantic decoder, which, in a simple realization, is based on four layers: First, a sensory memory layer, as a buffer for sensory input, second, an index layer representing concepts, third, a memoryless representation layer for the broadcasting of information and fourth, a working memory layer as a processing center and data buffer. In a Bayesian brain interpretation, semantic memory defines the prior for triple statements. We propose that, in evolution and during development, semantic memory, episodic memory and natural language evolved as emergent properties in the agents' process to gain deeper understanding of sensory information. We present a concrete model realization and validate some aspects of our proposed model on benchmark data where we demonstrate state-of-the-art performance.


Reasoning-Driven Question-Answering for Natural Language Understanding

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Natural language understanding (NLU) of text is a fundamental challenge in AI, and it has received significant attention throughout the history of NLP research. This primary goal has been studied under different tasks, such as Question Answering (QA) and Textual Entailment (TE). In this thesis, we investigate the NLU problem through the QA task and focus on the aspects that make it a challenge for the current state-of-the-art technology. This thesis is organized into three main parts: In the first part, we explore multiple formalisms to improve existing machine comprehension systems. We propose a formulation for abductive reasoning in natural language and show its effectiveness, especially in domains with limited training data. Additionally, to help reasoning systems cope with irrelevant or redundant information, we create a supervised approach to learn and detect the essential terms in questions. In the second part, we propose two new challenge datasets. In particular, we create two datasets of natural language questions where (i) the first one requires reasoning over multiple sentences; (ii) the second one requires temporal common sense reasoning. We hope that the two proposed datasets will motivate the field to address more complex problems. In the final part, we present the first formal framework for multi-step reasoning algorithms, in the presence of a few important properties of language use, such as incompleteness, ambiguity, etc. We apply this framework to prove fundamental limitations for reasoning algorithms. These theoretical results provide extra intuition into the existing empirical evidence in the field.


Representation Learning for Words and Entities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This thesis presents new methods for unsupervised learning of distributed representations of words and entities from text and knowledge bases. The first algorithm presented in the thesis is a multi-view algorithm for learning representations of words called Multiview Latent Semantic Analysis (MVLSA). By incorporating up to 46 different types of co-occurrence statistics for the same vocabulary of english words, I show that MVLSA outperforms other state-of-the-art word embedding models. Next, I focus on learning entity representations for search and recommendation and present the second method of this thesis, Neural Variational Set Expansion (NVSE). NVSE is also an unsupervised learning method, but it is based on the Variational Autoencoder framework. Evaluations with human annotators show that NVSE can facilitate better search and recommendation of information gathered from noisy, automatic annotation of unstructured natural language corpora. Finally, I move from unstructured data and focus on structured knowledge graphs. I present novel approaches for learning embeddings of vertices and edges in a knowledge graph that obey logical constraints.


Holographic Embeddings of Knowledge Graphs

AAAI Conferences

Learning embeddings of entities and relations is an efficient and versatile method to perform machine learning on relational data such as knowledge graphs. In this work, we propose holographic embeddings (HolE) to learn compositional vector space representations of entire knowledge graphs. The proposed method is related to holographic models of associative memory in that it employs circular correlation to create compositional representations. By using correlation as the compositional operator, HolE can capture rich interactions but simultaneously remains efficient to compute, easy to train, and scalable to very large datasets. Experimentally, we show that holographic embeddings are able to outperform state-of-the-art methods for link prediction on knowledge graphs and relational learning benchmark datasets.


Holographic Embeddings of Knowledge Graphs

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Learning embeddings of entities and relations is an efficient and versatile method to perform machine learning on relational data such as knowledge graphs. In this work, we propose holographic embeddings (HolE) to learn compositional vector space representations of entire knowledge graphs. The proposed method is related to holographic models of associative memory in that it employs circular correlation to create compositional representations. By using correlation as the compositional operator HolE can capture rich interactions but simultaneously remains efficient to compute, easy to train, and scalable to very large datasets. In extensive experiments we show that holographic embeddings are able to outperform state-of-the-art methods for link prediction in knowledge graphs and relational learning benchmark datasets.