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The Tricky Aftermath of Source Code Leaks

WIRED

The Lapsus$ digital extortion group is the latest to mount a high-profile data-stealing rampage against major tech companies. And among other things, the group is known for grabbing and leaking source code at every opportunity, including from Samsung, Qualcomm, and Nvidia. At the end of March, alongside revelations that they had breached an Okta subprocessor, the hackers also dropped a trove of data containing portions of the source code for Microsoft's Bing, Bing Maps, and its Cortana virtual assistant. Businesses, governments, and other institutions have been plagued by ransomware attacks, business email compromise, and an array other breaches in recent years. Researchers say, though, that while source code leaks may seem catastrophic, and certainly aren't good, they typically aren't the worst-case scenario of a criminal data breach.


Human-Centered Approach to Static-Analysis-Driven Developer Tools

Communications of the ACM

They can be too opaque, and to raise the signal of what is most important, they end up hiding too much. "The purpose of abstraction is not to be vague, but to create a new semantic level in which one can be absolutely precise."--


The Weights can be Harmful: Pareto Search versus Weighted Search in Multi-Objective Search-Based Software Engineering

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In presence of multiple objectives to be optimized in Search-Based Software Engineering (SBSE), Pareto search has been commonly adopted. It searches for a good approximation of the problem's Pareto optimal solutions, from which the stakeholders choose the most preferred solution according to their preferences. However, when clear preferences of the stakeholders (e.g., a set of weights which reflect relative importance between objectives) are available prior to the search, weighted search is believed to be the first choice since it simplifies the search via converting the original multi-objective problem into a single-objective one and enable the search to focus on what only the stakeholders are interested in. This paper questions such a "weighted search first" belief. We show that the weights can, in fact, be harmful to the search process even in the presence of clear preferences. Specifically, we conduct a large scale empirical study which consists of 38 systems/projects from three representative SBSE problems, together with two types of search budget and nine sets of weights, leading to 604 cases of comparisons. Our key finding is that weighted search reaches a certain level of solution quality by consuming relatively less resources at the early stage of the search; however, Pareto search is at the majority of the time (up to 77% of the cases) significantly better than its weighted counterpart, as long as we allow a sufficient, but not unrealistic search budget. This, together with other findings and actionable suggestions in the paper, allows us to codify pragmatic and comprehensive guidance on choosing weighted and Pareto search for SBSE under the circumstance that clear preferences are available. All code and data can be accessed at: https://github.com/ideas-labo/pareto-vs-weight-for-sbse.


The impact of feature importance methods on the interpretation of defect classifiers

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Abstract--Classifier specific (CS) and classifier agnostic (CA) feature importance methods are widely used (often interchangeably) by prior studies to derive feature importance ranks from a defect classifier. However, different feature importance methods are likely to compute different feature importance ranks even for the same dataset and classifier. Hence such interchangeable use of feature importance methods can lead to conclusion instabilities unless there is a strong agreement among different methods. Therefore, in this paper, we evaluate the agreement between the feature importance ranks associated with the studied classifiers through a case study of 18 software projects and six commonly used classifiers. We find that: 1) The computed feature importance ranks by CA and CS methods do not always strongly agree with each other. Such findings raise concerns about the stability of conclusions across replicated studies. We further observe that the commonly used defect datasets are rife with feature interactions and these feature interactions impact the computed feature importance ranks of the CS methods (not the CA methods). We demonstrate that removing these feature interactions, even with simple methods like CFS improves agreement between the computed feature importance ranks of CA and CS methods. In light of our findings, we provide guidelines for stakeholders and practitioners when performing model interpretation and directions for future research, e.g., future research is needed to investigate the impact of advanced feature interaction removal methods on computed feature importance ranks of different CS methods. We note, however, that a CS method is not always readily available for Defect classifiers are widely used by many large software corporations a given classifier. Defect classifiers are commonly and deep neural networks do not have a widely accepted CS interpreted to uncover insights to improve software quality. Therefore it is the feature importance ranks of different classifiers is pivotal that these generated insights are reliable. Such CA methods measure the contribution of each feature a feature importance method to compute a ranking of feature towards a classifier's predictions. These measure the contribution of each feature by effecting changes to feature importance ranks reflect the order in which the studied that particular feature in the dataset and observing its impact on features contribute to the predictive capability of the studied the outcome. The primary advantage of CA methods is that they classifier [14].


Unicorn: Reasoning about Configurable System Performance through the lens of Causality

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Modern computer systems are highly configurable, with the variability space sometimes larger than the number of atoms in the universe. Understanding and reasoning about the performance behavior of highly configurable systems, due to a vast variability space, is challenging. State-of-the-art methods for performance modeling and analyses rely on predictive machine learning models, therefore, they become (i) unreliable in unseen environments (e.g., different hardware, workloads), and (ii) produce incorrect explanations. To this end, we propose a new method, called Unicorn, which (a) captures intricate interactions between configuration options across the software-hardware stack and (b) describes how such interactions impact performance variations via causal inference. We evaluated Unicorn on six highly configurable systems, including three on-device machine learning systems, a video encoder, a database management system, and a data analytics pipeline. The experimental results indicate that Unicorn outperforms state-of-the-art performance optimization and debugging methods. Furthermore, unlike the existing methods, the learned causal performance models reliably predict performance for new environments.


A Knowledge-driven Business Process Analysis Canvas

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Business process (BP) analysis represents a first key phase of information system development. It consists in the gathering of domain knowledge and its organization to be later used in the software development, and beyond (e.g., for Business Process Reengineering). The quality of the developed information system largely depends on how the BP analysis has been carried out and the quality of the produced requirement specification documents. Despite the fact that the issue is on the table for decades, business process analysis is still a critical phase of information systems development. One promising strategy is an early and more important involvement of business experts in the BP analysis. This paper presents a methodology that aims at an early involvement of business experts while providing a formal grounding that guarantees the quality of the produced specifications. To this end, we propose the Business Process Analysis Canvas, a knowledge framework organized in eight knowledge sections aimed at supporting the business expert in carrying out the analysis, eventually yielding a BP analysis Ontology.


A Taxonomy of Information Attributes for Test Case Prioritisation: Applicability, Machine Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Most software companies have extensive test suites and re-run parts of them continuously to ensure recent changes have no adverse effects. Since test suites are costly to execute, industry needs methods for test case prioritisation (TCP). Recently, TCP methods use machine learning (ML) to exploit the information known about the system under test (SUT) and its test cases. However, the value added by ML-based TCP methods should be critically assessed with respect to the cost of collecting the information. This paper analyses two decades of TCP research, and presents a taxonomy of 91 information attributes that have been used. The attributes are classified with respect to their information sources and the characteristics of their extraction process. Based on this taxonomy, TCP methods validated with industrial data and those applying ML are analysed in terms of information availability, attribute combination and definition of data features suitable for ML. Relying on a high number of information attributes, assuming easy access to SUT code and simplified testing environments are identified as factors that might hamper industrial applicability of ML-based TCP. The TePIA taxonomy provides a reference framework to unify terminology and evaluate alternatives considering the cost-benefit of the information attributes.


Artificial Intelligence in Software Testing : Impact, Problems, Challenges and Prospect

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is making a significant impact in multiple areas like medical, military, industrial, domestic, law, arts as AI is capable to perform several roles such as managing smart factories, driving autonomous vehicles, creating accurate weather forecasts, detecting cancer and personal assistants, etc. Software testing is the process of putting the software to test for some abnormal behaviour of the software. Software testing is a tedious, laborious and most time-consuming process. Automation tools have been developed that help to automate some activities of the testing process to enhance quality and timely delivery. Over time with the inclusion of continuous integration and continuous delivery (CI/CD) pipeline, automation tools are becoming less effective. The testing community is turning to AI to fill the gap as AI is able to check the code for bugs and errors without any human intervention and in a much faster way than humans. In this study, we aim to recognize the impact of AI technologies on various software testing activities or facets in the STLC. Further, the study aims to recognize and explain some of the biggest challenges software testers face while applying AI to testing. The paper also proposes some key contributions of AI in the future to the domain of software testing.


MMO: Meta Multi-Objectivization for Software Configuration Tuning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Software configuration tuning is essential for optimizing a given performance objective (e.g., minimizing latency). Yet, due to the software's intrinsically complex configuration landscape and expensive measurement, there has been a rather mild success, particularly in preventing the search from being trapped in local optima. To address this issue, in this paper we take a different perspective. Instead of focusing on improving the optimizer, we work on the level of optimization model and propose a meta multi-objectivization (MMO) model that considers an auxiliary performance objective (e.g., throughput in addition to latency). What makes this model unique is that we do not optimize the auxiliary performance objective, but rather use it to make similarly-performing while different configurations less comparable (i.e. Pareto nondominated to each other), thus preventing the search from being trapped in local optima. Importantly through a new normalization method we show how to effectively use the MMO model without worrying about its weight -- the only yet highly sensitive parameter that can affect its effectiveness. Experiments on 22 cases from 11 real-world software systems/environments confirm that our MMO model with the new normalization performs better than its state-of-the-art single-objective counterparts on 82% cases while achieving up to 2.09x speedup. For 67% of the cases, the new normalization also enables the MMO model to outperform the instance when using it with the normalization used in our prior FSE work under pre-tuned best weights, saving a great amount of resources which would be otherwise necessary to find a good weight. We also demonstrate that the MMO model with the new normalization can consolidate Flash, a recent model-based tuning tool, on 68% of the cases with 1.22x speedup in general.


Graph Kernels: A Survey

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Graph kernels have attracted a lot of attention during the last decade, and have evolved into a rapidly developing branch of learning on structured data. During the past 20 years, the considerable research activity that occurred in the field resulted in the development of dozens of graph kernels, each focusing on specific structural properties of graphs. Graph kernels have proven successful in a wide range of domains, ranging from social networks to bioinformatics. The goal of this survey is to provide a unifying view of the literature on graph kernels. In particular, we present a comprehensive overview of a wide range of graph kernels. Furthermore, we perform an experimental evaluation of several of those kernels on publicly available datasets, and provide a comparative study. Finally, we discuss key applications of graph kernels, and outline some challenges that remain to be addressed.