Eight technologies developed by MIT Lincoln Laboratory researchers, either wholly or in collaboration with researchers from other organizations, were among the winners of the 2020 R&D 100 Awards. Annually since 1963, these international R&D awards recognize 100 technologies that a panel of expert judges selects as the most revolutionary of the past year. Six of the laboratory's winning technologies are software systems, a number of which take advantage of artificial intelligence techniques. The software technologies are solutions to difficulties inherent in analyzing large volumes of data and to problems in maintaining cybersecurity. Another technology is a process designed to assure secure fabrication of integrated circuits, and the eighth winner is an optical communications technology that may enable future space missions to transmit error-free data to Earth at significantly higher rates than currently possible.
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What if I told a story here, how would that story start?" Thus, the summarization prompt: "My second grader asked me what this passage means: …" When a given prompt isn't working and GPT-3 keeps pivoting into other modes of completion, that may mean that one hasn't constrained it enough by imitating a correct output, and one needs to go further; writing the first few words or sentence of the target output may be necessary.
The design and implementation of an e-voting system is a challenging task. Formal analysis can be of great help here. In particular, it can lead to a better understanding of how the voting system works, and what requirements on the system are relevant. In this paper, we propose that the state-of-art model checker Uppaal provides a good environment for modelling and preliminary verification of voting protocols. To illustrate this, we present an Uppaal model of Pr\^et \`a Voter, together with some natural extensions. We also show how to verify a variant of receipt-freeness, despite the severe limitations of the property specification language in the model checker.
I started doing some home baking recently. It started, like with a lot of other people, during the pandemic lockdown period when I got tired of buying the same bread from the supermarket every day. In all honesty, my bakes are passable, not very pretty but they please the family, which is good enough for me. Yesterday I stumbled on a YouTube video on how a factory makes bread in synchronised perfection and it broke a bit of my heart. All the hard work kneading dough amounts to nothing compared to spinning motors tumbling through a mechanised giant bucket. As I watch rows and rows of dough rising in unison spirals up the proofing carousel then slowly rolling into a constantly humming monstrous oven to become marching loaves of bread, something died in me. When the loaves zipped themselves into sealed bags and dumped themselves into packing boxes, I tell myself that they don't have the same craftsmanship (in my mind) as someone who is making bread with love, for his family. But deep inside me, I understand that if bread depended on human bakers only, it would be a whole lot more expensive, a lot more people would go hungry.
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The existence of a security vulnerability in a system does not necessarily mean that it can be exploited. In this research, we introduce Autosploit -- an automated framework for evaluating the exploitability of vulnerabilities. Given a vulnerable environment and relevant exploits, Autosploit will automatically test the exploits on different configurations of the environment in order to identify the specific properties necessary for successful exploitation of the existing vulnerabilities. Since testing all possible system configurations is infeasible, we introduce an efficient approach for testing and searching through all possible configurations of the environment. The efficient testing process implemented by Autosploit is based on two algorithms: generalized binary splitting and Barinel, which are used for noiseless and noisy environments respectively. We implemented the proposed framework and evaluated it using real vulnerabilities. The results show that Autosploit is able to automatically identify the system properties that affect the ability to exploit a vulnerability in both noiseless and noisy environments. These important results can be utilized for more accurate and effective risk assessment.
The authors of the Harrisburg University study make explicit their desire to provide "a significant advantage for law enforcement agencies and other intelligence agencies to prevent crime" as a co-author and former NYPD police officer outlined in the original press release. At a time when the legitimacy of the carceral state, and policing in particular, is being challenged on fundamental grounds in the United States, there is high demand in law enforcement for research of this nature, research which erases historical violence and manufactures fear through the so-called prediction of criminality. Publishers and funding agencies serve a crucial role in feeding this ravenous maw by providing platforms and incentives for such research. The circulation of this work by a major publisher like Springer would represent a significant step towards the legitimation and application of repeatedly debunked, socially harmful research in the real world. To reiterate our demands, the review committee must publicly rescind the offer for publication of this specific study, along with an explanation of the criteria used to evaluate it. Springer must issue a statement condemning the use of criminal justice statistics to predict criminality and acknowledging their role in incentivizing such harmful scholarship in the past. Finally, all publishers must refrain from publishing similar studies in the future.
Moritz Lipp is a Ph.D. candidate at Graz University of Technology, Flanders, Austria. Michael Schwarz is a postdoctoral researcher at Graz University of Technology, Flanders, Austria. Daniel Gruss is an assistant professor at Graz University of Technology, Flanders, Austria. Thomas Prescher is a chief architect at Cyberus Technology GmbH, Dresden, Germany. Werner Haas is the Chief Technology Officer at Cyberus Technology GmbH, Dresden, Germany.