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A Survey on Edge Intelligence

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Edge intelligence refers to a set of connected systems and devices for data collection, caching, processing, and analysis in locations close to where data is captured based on artificial intelligence. The aim of edge intelligence is to enhance the quality and speed of data processing and protect the privacy and security of the data. Although recently emerged, spanning the period from 2011 to now, this field of research has shown explosive growth over the past five years. In this paper, we present a thorough and comprehensive survey on the literature surrounding edge intelligence. We first identify four fundamental components of edge intelligence, namely edge caching, edge training, edge inference, and edge offloading, based on theoretical and practical results pertaining to proposed and deployed systems. We then aim for a systematic classification of the state of the solutions by examining research results and observations for each of the four components and present a taxonomy that includes practical problems, adopted techniques, and application goals. For each category, we elaborate, compare and analyse the literature from the perspectives of adopted techniques, objectives, performance, advantages and drawbacks, etc. This survey article provides a comprehensive introduction to edge intelligence and its application areas. In addition, we summarise the development of the emerging research field and the current state-of-the-art and discuss the important open issues and possible theoretical and technical solutions.


What is image analysis?

#artificialintelligence

You're going to need a free video content marketing strategy template. Yep… one of the most advanced pet identification systems out there... PiP is a smartphone app created for pet owners who've lost their cat, dog, fish. Should you misplace your pet, its photo will be analyzed and matched with photos of pets that have been found wandering the streets. Image analysis is used to beat lost tags, outdated microchips, and fading tattoos. Teaching a computer to see, is no walk in the park.


sZoom: A Framework for Automatic Zoom into High Resolution Surveillance Videos

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Current cameras are capable of recording high resolution video. While viewing on a mobile device, a user can manually zoom into this high resolution video to get more detailed view of objects and activities. However, manual zooming is not suitable for surveillance and monitoring. It is tiring to continuously keep zooming into various regions of the video. Also, while viewing one region, the operator may miss activities in other regions. In this paper, we propose sZoom, a framework to automatically zoom into a high resolution surveillance video. The proposed framework selectively zooms into the sensitive regions of the video to present details of the scene, while still preserving the overall context required for situation assessment. A multi-variate Gaussian penalty is introduced to ensure full coverage of the scene. The method achieves near real-time performance through a number of timing optimizations. An extensive user study shows that, while watching a full HD video on a mobile device, the system enhances the security operator's efficiency in understanding the details of the scene by 99% on the average compared to a scaled version of the original high resolution video. The produced video achieved 46% higher ratings for usefulness in a surveillance task.


A Review of Tracking, Prediction and Decision Making Methods for Autonomous Driving

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The models are updated using a CNN, which ensures robustness to noise, scaling and minor variations of the targets' appearance. As with many other related approaches, an online implementation offloads most of the processing to an external server leaving the embedded device from the vehicle to carry out only minor and frequently-needed tasks. Since quick reactions of the system are crucial for proper and safe vehicle operation, performance and a rapid response of the underlying software is essential, which is why the online approach is popular in this field. Also in the context of ensuring robustness and stability, some authors apply fusion techniques to information extracted from CNN layers. It has been previously mentioned that important correlations can be drawn from deep and shallow layers which can be exploited together for identifying robust features in the data.


Attacking Artificial Intelligence: AI's Security Vulnerability and What Policymakers Can Do About It

#artificialintelligence

Artificial intelligence systems can be attacked. The methods underpinning the state-of-the-art artificial intelligence systems are systematically vulnerable to a new type of cybersecurity attack called an "artificial intelligence attack." Using this attack, adversaries can manipulate these systems in order to alter their behavior to serve a malicious end goal. As artificial intelligence systems are further integrated into critical components of society, these artificial intelligence attacks represent an emerging and systematic vulnerability with the potential to have significant effects on the security of the country. These "AI attacks" are fundamentally different from traditional cyberattacks. Unlike traditional cyberattacks that are caused by "bugs" or human mistakes in code, AI attacks are enabled by inherent limitations in the underlying AI algorithms that currently cannot be fixed. Further, AI attacks fundamentally expand the set of entities that can be used to execute ...


Understanding Optical Music Recognition

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

For over 50 years, researchers have been trying to teach computers to read music notation, referred to as Optical Music Recognition (OMR). However, this field is still difficult to access for new researchers, especially those without a significant musical background: few introductory materials are available, and furthermore the field has struggled with defining itself and building a shared terminology. In this tutorial, we address these shortcomings by (1) providing a robust definition of OMR and its relationship to related fields, (2) analyzing how OMR inverts the music encoding process to recover the musical notation and the musical semantics from documents, (3) proposing a taxonomy of OMR, with most notably a novel taxonomy of applications. Additionally, we discuss how deep learning affects modern OMR research, as opposed to the traditional pipeline. Based on this work, the reader should be able to attain a basic understanding of OMR: its objectives, its inherent structure, its relationship to other fields, the state of the art, and the research opportunities it affords.


AI in the media and creative industries

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Thanks to the Big Data revolution and increasing computing capacities, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has made an impressive revival over the past few years and is now omnipresent in both research and industry. The creative sectors have always been early adopters of AI technologies and this continues to be the case. As a matter of fact, recent technological developments keep pushing the boundaries of intelligent systems in creative applications: the critically acclaimed movie "Sunspring", released in 2016, was entirely written by AI technology, and the first-ever Music Album, called "Hello World", produced using AI has been released this year. Simultaneously, the exploratory nature of the creative process is raising important technical challenges for AI such as the ability for AI-powered techniques to be accurate under limited data resources, as opposed to the conventional "Big Data" approach, or the ability to process, analyse and match data from multiple modalities (text, sound, images, etc.) at the same time. The purpose of this white paper is to understand future technological advances in AI and their growing impact on creative industries. This paper addresses the following questions: Where does AI operate in creative Industries? What is its operative role? How will AI transform creative industries in the next ten years? This white paper aims to provide a realistic perspective of the scope of AI actions in creative industries, proposes a vision of how this technology could contribute to research and development works in such context, and identifies research and development challenges.


Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application ; the Upper-Rhine Artificial Intelligence Symposium (UR-AI 2019)

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The TriRhenaTech alliance universities and their partners presented their competences in the field of artificial intelligence and their cross-border cooperations with the industry at the tri-national conference 'Artificial Intelligence : from Research to Application' on March 13th, 2019 in Offenburg. The TriRhenaTech alliance is a network of universities in the Upper Rhine Trinational Metropolitan Region comprising of the German universities of applied sciences in Furtwangen, Kaiserslautern, Karlsruhe, and Offenburg, the Baden-Wuerttemberg Cooperative State University Loerrach, the French university network Alsace Tech (comprised of 14 'grandes \'ecoles' in the fields of engineering, architecture and management) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland. The alliance's common goal is to reinforce the transfer of knowledge, research, and technology, as well as the cross-border mobility of students.


What is image analysis?

#artificialintelligence

It can be as simple as scanning a barcode, or as complex as PiP. Yep… one of the most advanced pet identification systems out there... PiP is a smartphone app created for pet owners who've lost their cat, dog, fish. Should you misplace your pet, its photo will be analyzed and matched with photos of pets that have been found wandering the streets. Image analysis is used to beat lost tags, outdated microchips, and fading tattoos. Teaching a computer to see, is no walk in the park.


A Comprehensive Survey of Deep Learning for Image Captioning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

These sources contain images that viewers would have to interpret themselves. Most images do not have a description, but the human can largely understand them without their detailed captions. However, machine needs to interpret some form of image captions if humans need automatic image captions from it. Image captioning is important for many reasons. For example, they can be used for automatic image indexing. Image indexing is important for Content-Based Image Retrieval (CBIR) and therefore, it can be applied to many areas, including biomedicine, commerce, the military, education, digital libraries, and web searching. Social media platforms such as Facebook and Twitter can directly generate descriptions from images. The descriptions can include where we are (e.g., beach, cafe), what we wear and importantly what we are doing there.