"Search is a problem-solving technique that systematically explores a space of problem states, i.e., successive and alternative stages in the problem-solving process. Examples of problem states might include the different board configurations in a game or intermediate steps in a reasoning process. This space of alternative solutions is then searched to find an answer. Newell and Simon (1976) have argued that this is the essential basis of human problem solving. Indeed, when a chess player examines the effects of different moves or a doctor considers a number of alternative diagnoses, they are searching among alternatives."
– from Section 1.2 of Chapter One of George F. Luger's textbook, Artificial Intelligence: Structures and Strategies for Complex Problem Solving, 5th Edition (Addison-Wesley; 2005).
Most Professional Machine Learning practitioners follow the ML Pipeline as a standard, to keep their work efficient and to keep the flow of work. A pipeline is created to allow data flow from its raw format to some useful information. All sub-fields in this pipeline's modules are equally important for us to produce quality results, and one of them is Hyper-Parameter Tuning. Most of us know the best way to proceed with Hyper-Parameter Tuning is to use the GridSearchCV or RandomSearchCV from the sklearn module. But apart from these algorithms, there are many other Advanced methods for Hyper-Parameter Tuning.
Neural Architecture Search (NAS) automates network architecture engineering. It aims to learn a network topology that can achieve best performance on a certain task. Although most popular and successful model architectures are designed by human experts, it doesn't mean we have explored the entire network architecture space and settled down with the best option. We would have a better chance to find the optimal solution if we adopt a systematic and automatic way of learning high-performance model architectures. Automatically learning and evolving network topologies is not a new idea (Stanley & Miikkulainen, 2002). In recent years, the pioneering work by Zoph & Le 2017 and Baker et al. 2017 has attracted a lot of attention into the field of Neural Architecture Search (NAS), leading to many interesting ideas for better, faster and more cost-efficient NAS methods. As I started looking into NAS, I found this nice survey very helpful by Elsken, et al 2019. They characterize NAS as a system with three major components, which is clean & concise, and also commonly adopted in other NAS papers. The NAS search space defines a set of basic network operations and how operations can be connected to construct valid network architectures.
With artificial intelligence (AI) systems, we can develop goal-driven agents to automate problem-solving. This involves predicting and classifying the available data and training agents to execute tasks successfully. This book will help you to solve complex AI problems using practical recipes. The AI with Python book starts by showing you how to install Python and its essential packages and then takes you through the fundamentals of data loading and exploration of datasets. You'll learn how to build probabilistic models and work with heuristic search techniques.
The above data structures all of these operations can be guaranteed to be in O(Logn) time. So can we perform it with O(1) time? this is why the hash table comes in. The simplest method to build Hash function is each key, we can perform sum of each key by add all character and then we can use Modulo for M. M is typically a prime number and it is the size of Hash array. I just suppose in a simple case of password but in real life, we must encode password (this is not the purpose of this article and apply a ton of algorithm for encoding password).
Intelligence is the strength of the human species; we have used it to improve our lives. Then, we created the concept of artificial intelligence, to amplify human intelligence and to develop and flourish civilizations like never before. A* Search Algorithm is one such algorithm that has been developed to help us. In this blog, we will learn more about what A* algorithm in artificial intelligence means, what are the steps involved in A* search algorithm in artificial intelligence, it's implementation in Python, and more. AI helps us solve problems of various complexities.
In this article, I describe agent-centered search (also called real-time search or local search) and illustrate this planning paradigm with examples. Agent-centered search methods interleave planning and plan execution and restrict planning to the part of the domain around the current state of the agent, for example, the current location of a mobile robot or the current board position of a game. These methods can execute actions in the presence of time constraints and often have a small sum of planning and execution cost, both because they trade off planning and execution cost and because they allow agents to gather information early in nondeterministic domains, which reduces the amount of planning they have to perform for unencountered situations. These advantages become important as more intelligent systems are interfaced with the world and have to operate autonomously in complex environments. Agent-centered search methods have been applied to a variety of domains, including traditional search, strips-type planning, moving-target search, planning with totally and partially observable Markov decision process models, reinforcement learning, constraint satisfaction, and robot navigation.
AutoML is a generic expression to indicate pieces of software that perform Machine Learning tasks automatically. Such pieces of software can be Python libraries like Auto-Sklearn or software programs like Data Robot. AutoML pieces of software replace all the boring steps that take more time to a Data Scientist's work. They actually make all the combinations of the several parameters of a pipeline (e.g. the blank filling values, scaling algorithm, model type, model hyperparameters) and select the best combination that maximizes some performance metrics (like RMSE or Area under the ROC Curve) in k-fold cross-validation using some search algorithm (like Grid or Random Search). They can really simplify the life of somebody that has to create a model from scratch and sometimes they explore combinations and scenarios that a Data Scientist may not have thought of.
The theory of computation is one of the crown jewels of the computer science curriculum. It stretches from the discovery of mathematical problems, such as the halting problem, that cannot be solved by computers, to the most celebrated open problem in computer science today: the P vs. NP question. Since the founding of our discipline by Church and Turing in the 1930s, the theory of computation has addressed some of the most fundamental questions about computers: What does it mean to compute the solution to a problem? Which problems can be solved by computers? Which problems can be solved efficiently, in theory and in practice?
Japanese toy-maker MegaHouse Corp. said Wednesday it will launch the world's smallest working Rubik's Cube, weighing about 2 grams and measuring 0.99 centimeter on each side. On the same day, the Bandai Namco Holdings Inc. subsidiary started accepting orders for the product online. It is priced at ¥198,000 in Japan, including delivery costs. Delivery will start in late December. The Rubik's Cube, invented by Erno Rubik from Hungary in 1974, hit store shelves across the world in 1980. In Japan, MegaHouse has shipped out over 14 million cubes.
This paper introduces a blazingly fast, no-loss expert system for Tic Tac Toe using Decision Trees called T3DT, that tries to emulate human gameplay as closely as possible. It does not make use of any brute force, minimax or evolutionary techniques, but is still always unbeatable. In order to make the gameplay more human-like, randomization is prioritized and T3DT randomly chooses one of the multiple optimal moves at each step. Since it does not need to analyse the complete game tree at any point, T3DT is exceptionally faster than any brute force or minimax algorithm, this has been shown theoretically as well as empirically from clock-time analyses in this paper. T3DT also doesn't need the data sets or the time to train an evolutionary model, making it a practical no-loss approach to play Tic Tac Toe.