Scripts & Frames

Your dog can remember all those silly things you've done: Canines have 'episodic' memories, just like humans

Daily Mail

Dogs have a remarkable ability to recall events from the past, in a similar way to humans. That's according to a new study which found evidence canines have a similar'episodic memory' to their human counterparts. Dogs can recall a person's actions even when they do not expect to have their memory tested, says the research. Previously, evidence that animals use episodic memory has been hard to come by, as it's impossible to ask an animal, in this case a dog, what they remember (stock image) Dogs trained using the trick can watch a person perform an action and carry out the action themselves. For example, if the their owner jumps in the air and then gives the command'do it', the dog would jump in the air.

Purposive Understanding

Classics (Collection 2)

For the past ten years we have been working on the problem of getting a computer to understand natural language. We built an early version of a parser that mapped from English into a language-free representation of the meaning of input sentences (Schank and Tesler, 1969). Simultaneously we worked on the meaning representation itself. We developed Conceptual Dependency which represents meaning as a network of concepts independent of the actual words that might be used to express those concepts (Schank, 1969). Over the years the parser and the representation evolved as we began to understand the complexity of the problem with which we were dealing.

A Multi-Domain Evaluation of Scaling in a General Episodic Memory

AAAI Conferences

Episodic memory endows agents with numerous general cognitive capabilities, such as action modeling and virtual sensing. However, for long-lived agents, there are numerous unexplored computational challenges in supporting useful episodic-memory functions while maintaining real-time reactivity. In this paper, we review the implementation of episodic memory in Soar and present an expansive evaluation of that system. We demonstrate useful applications of episodic memory across a variety of domains, including games, mobile robotics, planning, and linguistics. In these domains, we characterize properties of environments, tasks, and episodic cues that affect performance, and evaluate the ability of Soar’s episodic memory to support hours to days of real-time operation.

Purposive Understanding


... we began to program a computer understanding system thatwould attempt to process input texts. An item crucial to our ability to accomplishthis task was what we called a script. A script is a frequently repeated causalchain of events that describes a standard situation. In understanding, when it ispossible to notice that one of these standard event chains has been initiated,then it is possible to understand predictively. That is, if we know we are in arestaurant then we can understand where an "order" fits with what we justheard, who might be ordering what from whom, what preconditions (menu,sitting down) might have preceded the "order", and what is likely to happennext. All this information comes from the restaurant script.Hayes, J.E., D. Michie, and L. I. Mikulich (Eds.), Machine Intelligence 9, Ellis Horwood.

A Framework for Representing Knowledge


Reprinted in Patrick Winston (ed.), The Psychology of Computer Vision, New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975.Direct link to PDF. MIT-AI Laboratory Memo 306, June

A Conceptual Dependency Representation for a Computer-Oriented Semantics


Stanford AI Memo 83 or Computer Science Technical Note 130, Computer Science Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA, 1969