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The African Wildlife Ontology tutorial ontologies: requirements, design, and content

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Background. Most tutorial ontologies focus on illustrating one aspect of ontology development, notably language features and automated reasoners, but ignore ontology development factors, such as emergent modelling guidelines and ontological principles. Yet, novices replicate examples from the exercises they carry out. Not providing good examples holistically causes the propagation of sub-optimal ontology development, which may negatively affect the quality of a real domain ontology. Results. We identified 22 requirements that a good tutorial ontology should satisfy regarding subject domain, logics and reasoning, and engineering aspects. We developed a set of ontologies about African Wildlife to serve as tutorial ontologies. A majority of the requirements have been met with the set of African Wildlife Ontology tutorial ontologies, which are introduced in this paper. The African Wildlife Ontology is mature and has been used yearly in an ontology engineering course or tutorial since 2010 and is included in a recent ontology engineering textbook with relevant examples and exercises. Conclusion. The African Wildlife Ontology provides a wide range of options concerning examples and exercises for ontology engineering well beyond illustrating only language features and automated reasoning. It assists in demonstrating tasks about ontology quality, such as alignment to a foundational ontology and satisfying competency questions, versioning, and multilingual ontologies.


Generating Natural Language Descriptions from OWL Ontologies: the NaturalOWL System

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

We present NaturalOWL, a natural language generation system that produces texts describing individuals or classes of OWL ontologies. Unlike simpler OWL verbalizers, which typically express a single axiom at a time in controlled, often not entirely fluent natural language primarily for the benefit of domain experts, we aim to generate fluent and coherent multi-sentence texts for end-users. With a system like NaturalOWL, one can publish information in OWL on the Web, along with automatically produced corresponding texts in multiple languages, making the information accessible not only to computer programs and domain experts, but also end-users. We discuss the processing stages of NaturalOWL, the optional domain-dependent linguistic resources that the system can use at each stage, and why they are useful. We also present trials showing that when the domain-dependent llinguistic resources are available, NaturalOWL produces significantly better texts compared to a simpler verbalizer, and that the resources can be created with relatively light effort.


A modeling approach to design a software sensor and analyze agronomical features - Application to sap flow and grape quality relationship

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This work proposes a framework using temporal data and domain knowledge in order to analyze complex agronomical features. The expertise is first formalized in an ontology, under the form of concepts and relationships between them, and then used in conjunction with raw data and mathematical models to design a software sensor. Next the software sensor outputs are put in relation to product quality, assessed by quantitative measurements. This requires the use of advanced data analysis methods, such as functional regression. The methodology is applied to a case study involving an experimental design in French vineyards. The temporal data consist of sap flow measurements, and the goal is to explain fruit quality (sugar concentration and weight), using vine's water courses through the various vine phenological stages. The results are discussed, as well as the method genericity and robustness.


Extended RDF as a Semantic Foundation of Rule Markup Languages

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Ontologies and automated reasoning are the building blocks of the Semantic Web initiative. Derivation rules can be included in an ontology to define derived concepts, based on base concepts. For example, rules allow to define the extension of a class or property, based on a complex relation between the extensions of the same or other classes and properties. On the other hand, the inclusion of negative information both in the form of negation-as-failure and explicit negative information is also needed to enable various forms of reasoning. In this paper, we extend RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF stable model semantics of the extended framework (Extended RDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. A distinctive feature of our theory, which is based on Partial Logic, is that both truth and falsity extensions of properties and classes are considered, allowing for truth value gaps. Our framework supports both closed-world and open-world reasoning through the explicit representation of the particular closed-world assumptions and the ERDF ontological categories of total properties and total classes.


Extended RDF as a Semantic Foundation of Rule Markup Languages

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Ontologies and automated reasoning are the building blocks of the Semantic Web initiative. Derivation rules can be included in an ontology to define derived concepts, based on base concepts. For example, rules allow to define the extension of a class or property, based on a complex relation between the extensions of the same or other classes and properties. On the other hand, the inclusion of negative information both in the form of negation-as-failure and explicit negative information is also needed to enable various forms of reasoning. In this paper, we extend RDF graphs with weak and strong negation, as well as derivation rules. The ERDF stable model semantics of the extended framework (Extended RDF) is defined, extending RDF(S) semantics. A distinctive feature of our theory, which is based on Partial Logic, is that both truth and falsity extensions of properties and classes are considered, allowing for truth value gaps. Our framework supports both closed-world and open-world reasoning through the explicit representation of the particular closed-world assumptions and the ERDF ontological categories of total properties and total classes.