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A Survey of Methods for Automated Algorithm Configuration

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Algorithm configuration (AC) is concerned with the automated search of the most suitable parameter configuration of a parametrized algorithm. There is currently a wide variety of AC problem variants and methods proposed in the literature. Existing reviews do not take into account all derivatives of the AC problem, nor do they offer a complete classification scheme. To this end, we introduce taxonomies to describe the AC problem and features of configuration methods, respectively. We review existing AC literature within the lens of our taxonomies, outline relevant design choices of configuration approaches, contrast methods and problem variants against each other, and describe the state of AC in industry. Finally, our review provides researchers and practitioners with a look at future research directions in the field of AC.


Method of Lagrange Multipliers: The Theory Behind Support Vector Machines (Part 2: The Non-Separable Case)

#artificialintelligence

This tutorial is an extension of Method Of Lagrange Multipliers: The Theory Behind Support Vector Machines (Part 1: The Separable Case)) and explains the non-separable case. In real life problems positive and negative training examples may not be completely separable by a linear decision boundary. This tutorial explains how a soft margin can be built that tolerates a certain amount of errors. In this tutorial, we'll cover the basics of a linear SVM. We won't go into details of non-linear SVMs derived using the kernel trick.


DeHIN: A Decentralized Framework for Embedding Large-scale Heterogeneous Information Networks

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Modeling heterogeneity by extraction and exploitation of high-order information from heterogeneous information networks (HINs) has been attracting immense research attention in recent times. Such heterogeneous network embedding (HNE) methods effectively harness the heterogeneity of small-scale HINs. However, in the real world, the size of HINs grow exponentially with the continuous introduction of new nodes and different types of links, making it a billion-scale network. Learning node embeddings on such HINs creates a performance bottleneck for existing HNE methods that are commonly centralized, i.e., complete data and the model are both on a single machine. To address large-scale HNE tasks with strong efficiency and effectiveness guarantee, we present \textit{Decentralized Embedding Framework for Heterogeneous Information Network} (DeHIN) in this paper. In DeHIN, we generate a distributed parallel pipeline that utilizes hypergraphs in order to infuse parallelization into the HNE task. DeHIN presents a context preserving partition mechanism that innovatively formulates a large HIN as a hypergraph, whose hyperedges connect semantically similar nodes. Our framework then adopts a decentralized strategy to efficiently partition HINs by adopting a tree-like pipeline. Then, each resulting subnetwork is assigned to a distributed worker, which employs the deep information maximization theorem to locally learn node embeddings from the partition it receives. We further devise a novel embedding alignment scheme to precisely project independently learned node embeddings from all subnetworks onto a common vector space, thus allowing for downstream tasks like link prediction and node classification.


BALanCe: Deep Bayesian Active Learning via Equivalence Class Annealing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Active learning has demonstrated data efficiency in many fields. Existing active learning algorithms, especially in the context of deep Bayesian active models, rely heavily on the quality of uncertainty estimations of the model. However, such uncertainty estimates could be heavily biased, especially with limited and imbalanced training data. In this paper, we propose BALanCe, a Bayesian deep active learning framework that mitigates the effect of such biases. Concretely, BALanCe employs a novel acquisition function which leverages the structure captured by equivalence hypothesis classes and facilitates differentiation among different equivalence classes. Intuitively, each equivalence class consists of instantiations of deep models with similar predictions, and BALanCe adaptively adjusts the size of the equivalence classes as learning progresses. Besides the fully sequential setting, we further propose Batch-BALanCe -- a generalization of the sequential algorithm to the batched setting -- to efficiently select batches of training examples that are jointly effective for model improvement. We show that Batch-BALanCe achieves state-of-the-art performance on several benchmark datasets for active learning, and that both algorithms can effectively handle realistic challenges that often involve multi-class and imbalanced data.


From Dense to Sparse: Contrastive Pruning for Better Pre-trained Language Model Compression

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Pre-trained Language Models (PLMs) have achieved great success in various Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks under the pre-training and fine-tuning paradigm. With large quantities of parameters, PLMs are computation-intensive and resource-hungry. Hence, model pruning has been introduced to compress large-scale PLMs. However, most prior approaches only consider task-specific knowledge towards downstream tasks, but ignore the essential task-agnostic knowledge during pruning, which may cause catastrophic forgetting problem and lead to poor generalization ability. To maintain both task-agnostic and task-specific knowledge in our pruned model, we propose ContrAstive Pruning (CAP) under the paradigm of pre-training and fine-tuning. It is designed as a general framework, compatible with both structured and unstructured pruning. Unified in contrastive learning, CAP enables the pruned model to learn from the pre-trained model for task-agnostic knowledge, and fine-tuned model for task-specific knowledge. Besides, to better retain the performance of the pruned model, the snapshots (i.e., the intermediate models at each pruning iteration) also serve as effective supervisions for pruning. Our extensive experiments show that adopting CAP consistently yields significant improvements, especially in extremely high sparsity scenarios. With only 3% model parameters reserved (i.e., 97% sparsity), CAP successfully achieves 99.2% and 96.3% of the original BERT performance in QQP and MNLI tasks. In addition, our probing experiments demonstrate that the model pruned by CAP tends to achieve better generalization ability.


Learning Optimal Decision Sets and Lists with SAT

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

Decision sets and decision lists are two of the most easily explainable machine learning models. Given the renewed emphasis on explainable machine learning decisions, both of these machine learning models are becoming increasingly attractive, as they combine small size and clear explainability. In this paper, we define size as the total number of literals in the SAT encoding of these rule-based models as opposed to earlier work that concentrates on the number of rules. In this paper, we develop approaches to computing minimum-size "perfect" decision sets and decision lists, which are perfectly accurate on the training data, and minimal in size, making use of modern SAT solving technology. We also provide a new method for determining optimal sparse alternatives, which trade off size and accuracy. The experiments in this paper demonstrate that the optimal decision sets computed by the SAT-based approach are comparable with the best heuristic methods, but much more succinct, and thus, more explainable. We contrast the size and test accuracy of optimal decisions lists versus optimal decision sets, as well as other state-of-the-art methods for determining optimal decision lists. Finally, we examine the size of average explanations generated by decision sets and decision lists.


The Neurally-Guided Shape Parser: Grammar-based Labeling of 3D Shape Regions with Approximate Inference

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We propose the Neurally-Guided Shape Parser (NGSP), a method that learns how to assign fine-grained semantic labels to regions of a 3D shape. NGSP solves this problem via MAP inference, modeling the posterior probability of a label assignment conditioned on an input shape with a learned likelihood function. To make this search tractable, NGSP employs a neural guide network that learns to approximate the posterior. NGSP finds high-probability label assignments by first sampling proposals with the guide network and then evaluating each proposal under the full likelihood. We evaluate NGSP on the task of fine-grained semantic segmentation of manufactured 3D shapes from PartNet, where shapes have been decomposed into regions that correspond to part instance over-segmentations. We find that NGSP delivers significant performance improvements over comparison methods that (i) use regions to group per-point predictions, (ii) use regions as a self-supervisory signal or (iii) assign labels to regions under alternative formulations. Further, we show that NGSP maintains strong performance even with limited labeled data or as shape regions undergo artificial corruption. Finally, we demonstrate that NGSP can be directly applied to CAD shapes found in online repositories and validate its effectiveness with a perceptual study.


Guided Imitation of Task and Motion Planning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

While modern policy optimization methods can do complex manipulation from sensory data, they struggle on problems with extended time horizons and multiple sub-goals. On the other hand, task and motion planning (TAMP) methods scale to long horizons but they are computationally expensive and need to precisely track world state. We propose a method that draws on the strength of both methods: we train a policy to imitate a TAMP solver's output. This produces a feed-forward policy that can accomplish multi-step tasks from sensory data. First, we build an asynchronous distributed TAMP solver that can produce supervision data fast enough for imitation learning. Then, we propose a hierarchical policy architecture that lets us use partially trained control policies to speed up the TAMP solver. In robotic manipulation tasks with 7-DoF joint control, the partially trained policies reduce the time needed for planning by a factor of up to 2.6. Among these tasks, we can learn a policy that solves the RoboSuite 4-object pick-place task 88% of the time from object pose observations and a policy that solves the RoboDesk 9-goal benchmark 79% of the time from RGB images (averaged across the 9 disparate tasks).


A Gentle Introduction to Vector Space Models

#artificialintelligence

Vector space models are to consider the relationship between data that are represented by vectors. It is popular in information retrieval systems but also useful for other purposes. Generally, this allows us to compare the similarity of two vectors from a geometric perspective. In this tutorial, we will see what is a vector space model and what it can do. A Gentle Introduction to Vector Space Models Photo by liamfletch, some rights reserved.


Deep metric learning improves lab of origin prediction of genetically engineered plasmids

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Genome engineering is undergoing unprecedented development and is now becoming widely available. To ensure responsible biotechnology innovation and to reduce misuse of engineered DNA sequences, it is vital to develop tools to identify the lab-of-origin of engineered plasmids. Genetic engineering attribution (GEA), the ability to make sequence-lab associations, would support forensic experts in this process. Here, we propose a method, based on metric learning, that ranks the most likely labs-of-origin whilst simultaneously generating embeddings for plasmid sequences and labs. These embeddings can be used to perform various downstream tasks, such as clustering DNA sequences and labs, as well as using them as features in machine learning models. Our approach employs a circular shift augmentation approach and is able to correctly rank the lab-of-origin $90\%$ of the time within its top 10 predictions - outperforming all current state-of-the-art approaches. We also demonstrate that we can perform few-shot-learning and obtain $76\%$ top-10 accuracy using only $10\%$ of the sequences. This means, we outperform the previous CNN approach using only one-tenth of the data. We also demonstrate that we are able to extract key signatures in plasmid sequences for particular labs, allowing for an interpretable examination of the model's outputs.