In the previous post, we gave a walk-through example of "Character-Based Text Generation". In this post, we will provide an example of "Word Based Text Generation" where in essence we try to predict the next word instead of the next character. The main difference between those two models is that in the "Character-Based" we are dealing with a Classification of around 30–60 classes i.e as many as the number of unique characters (depending on if we convert it to lower case or not), wherein "Word Based" we are dealing with a Classification of around 10K classes, which is the usual number of unique tokens in any big document. Again, we will run it on colab and as a training dataset, we will take the "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland". We will apply an LSTM model.
Application service providers manage huge and complex infrastructures. Like any complex systems, things could go wrong from time to time, due to various reasons (for example, network connection response problems, infrastructure resource limitations, software malfunctioning issues, and so on). As a result, the question of how to quickly resolve issues when they happen becomes critical to help improve customer satisfaction and retention. Note: Performance numbers claimed in this post are based on public data sets and not specific to a particular project or organization. Recently, the fast advancement of natural language processing (NLP) algorithms have helped solve many practical problems by analyzing text information.
Abstract: Deep Learning has enjoyed an impressive growth over the past few years in fields ranging from visual recognition to natural language processing. Improvements in these areas have been fundamental to the development of self-driving cars, machine translation, and healthcare applications. This progress has arguably been made possible by a combination of increases in computing power and clever heuristics, raising puzzling questions that lack full theoretical understanding. Here, we will discuss the relationship between the theory behind deep learning and its application. This panel discussion will be hosted remotely via Zoom.
Human interaction with machines has experienced a great leap forward in recent years, largely driven by artificial intelligence (AI). From smart homes to self-driving cars, AI has become a seamless part of our daily lives. Voice interactions play a key role in many of these technological advances, most notably in language translation. Here, AI enables instant translation across a number of mediums: text, voice, images and even street signs. The technology works by recognizing individual words, then leveraging similarities in how various languages express the relationships between those words.
This might be the first time you hear about Explainable Artificial Intelligence, but it is certainly something you should have an opinion about. Explainable AI (XAI) refers to the techniques and methods to build AI applications that humans can understand "why" they make particular decisions. In other words, if we can get explanations from an AI system about its inner logic, this system is considered as an XAI system. Explainability is a new property that started to gain popularity in the AI community, and we will talk about why that happened in recent years. Let's dive into the technical roots of the problem, first.
With the advent of new deep learning approaches based on transformer architecture, natural language processing (NLP) techniques have undergone a revolution in performance and capabilities. Cutting-edge NLP models are becoming the core of modern search engines, voice assistants, chatbots, and more. Modern NLP models can synthesize human-like text and answer questions posed in natural language. As DeepMind research scientist Sebastian Ruder says, NLP's ImageNet moment has arrived. While NLP use has grown in mainstream use cases, it still is not widely adopted in healthcare, clinical applications, and scientific research.
It has only been 8 years since the modern era of deep learning began at the 2012 ImageNet competition. Progress in the field since then has been breathtaking and relentless. If anything, this breakneck pace is only accelerating. Five years from now, the field of AI will look very different than it does today. Methods that are currently considered cutting-edge will have become outdated; methods that today are nascent or on the fringes will be mainstream.
Deep learning bears promise for drug discovery, including advanced image analysis, prediction of molecular structure and function, and automated generation of innovative chemical entities with bespoke properties. Despite the growing number of successful prospective applications, the underlying mathematical models often remain elusive to interpretation by the human mind. There is a demand for ‘explainable’ deep learning methods to address the need for a new narrative of the machine language of the molecular sciences. This Review summarizes the most prominent algorithmic concepts of explainable artificial intelligence, and forecasts future opportunities, potential applications as well as several remaining challenges. We also hope it encourages additional efforts towards the development and acceptance of explainable artificial intelligence techniques. Drug discovery has recently profited greatly from the use of deep learning models. However, these models can be notoriously hard to interpret. In this Review, Jiménez-Luna and colleagues summarize recent approaches to use explainable artificial intelligence techniques in drug discovery.
"Attention takes two sentences, turns them into a matrix where the words of one sentence form the columns, and the words of another sentence form the rows, and then it makes matches, identifying relevant context." Check out the graphic from the Attention is All You Need paper below. It's two sentences, in different languages (French and English), translated by a professional human translator. The attention mechanism can generate a heat map, showing what French words the model focused on to generate the translated English words in the output.