An increasing body of research focuses on using neural networks to model time series. A common assumption in training neural networks via maximum likelihood estimation on time series is that the errors across time steps are uncorrelated. However, errors are actually autocorrelated in many cases due to the temporality of the data, which makes such maximum likelihood estimations inaccurate. In this paper, in order to adjust for autocorrelated errors, we propose to learn the autocorrelation coefficient jointly with the model parameters. In our experiments, we verify the effectiveness of our approach on time series forecasting. Results across a wide range of real-world datasets with various state-of-the-art models show that our method enhances performance in almost all cases. Based on these results, we suggest empirical critical values to determine the severity of autocorrelated errors. We also analyze several aspects of our method to demonstrate its advantages. Finally, other time series tasks are also considered to validate that our method is not restricted to only forecasting.
This article belongs to the series "Probabilistic Deep Learning". This weekly series covers probabilistic approaches to deep learning. The main goal is to extend deep learning models to quantify uncertainty, i.e., know what they do not know. In this article, we will introduce the concept of probabilistic logistic regression, a powerful technique that allows for the inclusion of uncertainty in the prediction process. We will explore how this approach can lead to more robust and accurate predictions, especially in cases where the data is noisy, or the model is overfitting.
Arsalan, Aamir, Anwar, Syed Muhammad, Majid, Muhammad
This paper presents a comprehensive review of methods covering significant subjective and objective human stress detection techniques available in the literature. The methods for measuring human stress responses could include subjective questionnaires (developed by psychologists) and objective markers observed using data from wearable and non-wearable sensors. In particular, wearable sensor-based methods commonly use data from electroencephalography, electrocardiogram, galvanic skin response, electromyography, electrodermal activity, heart rate, heart rate variability, and photoplethysmography both individually and in multimodal fusion strategies. Whereas, methods based on non-wearable sensors include strategies such as analyzing pupil dilation and speech, smartphone data, eye movement, body posture, and thermal imaging. Whenever a stressful situation is encountered by an individual, physiological, physical, or behavioral changes are induced which help in coping with the challenge at hand. A wide range of studies has attempted to establish a relationship between these stressful situations and the response of human beings by using different kinds of psychological, physiological, physical, and behavioral measures. Inspired by the lack of availability of a definitive verdict about the relationship of human stress with these different kinds of markers, a detailed survey about human stress detection methods is conducted in this paper. In particular, we explore how stress detection methods can benefit from artificial intelligence utilizing relevant data from various sources. This review will prove to be a reference document that would provide guidelines for future research enabling effective detection of human stress conditions.
Petropoulos, Fotios, Apiletti, Daniele, Assimakopoulos, Vassilios, Babai, Mohamed Zied, Barrow, Devon K., Taieb, Souhaib Ben, Bergmeir, Christoph, Bessa, Ricardo J., Bijak, Jakub, Boylan, John E., Browell, Jethro, Carnevale, Claudio, Castle, Jennifer L., Cirillo, Pasquale, Clements, Michael P., Cordeiro, Clara, Oliveira, Fernando Luiz Cyrino, De Baets, Shari, Dokumentov, Alexander, Ellison, Joanne, Fiszeder, Piotr, Franses, Philip Hans, Frazier, David T., Gilliland, Michael, Gönül, M. Sinan, Goodwin, Paul, Grossi, Luigi, Grushka-Cockayne, Yael, Guidolin, Mariangela, Guidolin, Massimo, Gunter, Ulrich, Guo, Xiaojia, Guseo, Renato, Harvey, Nigel, Hendry, David F., Hollyman, Ross, Januschowski, Tim, Jeon, Jooyoung, Jose, Victor Richmond R., Kang, Yanfei, Koehler, Anne B., Kolassa, Stephan, Kourentzes, Nikolaos, Leva, Sonia, Li, Feng, Litsiou, Konstantia, Makridakis, Spyros, Martin, Gael M., Martinez, Andrew B., Meeran, Sheik, Modis, Theodore, Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos, Önkal, Dilek, Paccagnini, Alessia, Panagiotelis, Anastasios, Panapakidis, Ioannis, Pavía, Jose M., Pedio, Manuela, Pedregal, Diego J., Pinson, Pierre, Ramos, Patrícia, Rapach, David E., Reade, J. James, Rostami-Tabar, Bahman, Rubaszek, Michał, Sermpinis, Georgios, Shang, Han Lin, Spiliotis, Evangelos, Syntetos, Aris A., Talagala, Priyanga Dilini, Talagala, Thiyanga S., Tashman, Len, Thomakos, Dimitrios, Thorarinsdottir, Thordis, Todini, Ezio, Arenas, Juan Ramón Trapero, Wang, Xiaoqian, Winkler, Robert L., Yusupova, Alisa, Ziel, Florian
Forecasting has always been at the forefront of decision making and planning. The uncertainty that surrounds the future is both exciting and challenging, with individuals and organisations seeking to minimise risks and maximise utilities. The large number of forecasting applications calls for a diverse set of forecasting methods to tackle real-life challenges. This article provides a non-systematic review of the theory and the practice of forecasting. We provide an overview of a wide range of theoretical, state-of-the-art models, methods, principles, and approaches to prepare, produce, organise, and evaluate forecasts. We then demonstrate how such theoretical concepts are applied in a variety of real-life contexts. We do not claim that this review is an exhaustive list of methods and applications. However, we wish that our encyclopedic presentation will offer a point of reference for the rich work that has been undertaken over the last decades, with some key insights for the future of forecasting theory and practice. Given its encyclopedic nature, the intended mode of reading is non-linear. We offer cross-references to allow the readers to navigate through the various topics. We complement the theoretical concepts and applications covered by large lists of free or open-source software implementations and publicly-available databases.
A transition to a low-carbon electricity supply is crucial to limit the impacts of climate change. Reducing carbon emissions could help prevent the world from reaching a tipping point, where runaway emissions are likely. Runaway emissions could lead to extremes in weather conditions around the world -- especially in problematic regions unable to cope with these conditions. However, the movement to a low-carbon energy supply can not happen instantaneously due to the existing fossil-fuel infrastructure and the requirement to maintain a reliable energy supply. Therefore, a low-carbon transition is required, however, the decisions various stakeholders should make over the coming decades to reduce these carbon emissions are not obvious. This is due to many long-term uncertainties, such as electricity, fuel and generation costs, human behaviour and the size of electricity demand. A well choreographed low-carbon transition is, therefore, required between all of the heterogenous actors in the system, as opposed to changing the behaviour of a single, centralised actor. The objective of this thesis is to create a novel, open-source agent-based model to better understand the manner in which the whole electricity market reacts to different factors using state-of-the-art machine learning and artificial intelligence methods. In contrast to other works, this thesis looks at both the long-term and short-term impact that different behaviours have on the electricity market by using these state-of-the-art methods.
As the size and richness of available datasets grow larger, the opportunities for solving increasingly challenging problems with algorithms learning directly from data grow at the same pace. Consequently, the capability of learning algorithms to work with large amounts of data has become a crucial scientific and technological challenge for their practical applicability. Hence, it is no surprise that large-scale learning is currently drawing plenty of research effort in the machine learning research community. In this thesis, we focus on kernel methods, a theoretically sound and effective class of learning algorithms yielding nonparametric estimators. Kernel methods, in their classical formulations, are accurate and efficient on datasets of limited size, but do not scale up in a cost-effective manner. Recent research has shown that approximate learning algorithms, for instance random subsampling methods like Nystr\"om and random features, with time-memory-accuracy trade-off mechanisms are more scalable alternatives. In this thesis, we provide analyses of the generalization properties and computational requirements of several types of such approximation schemes. In particular, we expose the tight relationship between statistics and computations, with the goal of tailoring the accuracy of the learning process to the available computational resources. Our results are supported by experimental evidence on large-scale datasets and numerical simulations. We also study how large-scale learning can be applied to enable accurate, efficient, and reactive lifelong learning for robotics. In particular, we propose algorithms allowing robots to learn continuously from experience and adapt to changes in their operational environment. The proposed methods are validated on the iCub humanoid robot in addition to other benchmarks.
A large number and diversity of techniques have been offered in the literature in recent years for solving multi-label classification tasks, including classifier chains where predictions are cascaded to other models as additional features. The idea of extending this chaining methodology to multi-output regression has already been suggested and trialed: regressor chains. However, this has so-far been limited to greedy inference and has provided relatively poor results compared to individual models, and of limited applicability. In this paper we identify and discuss the main limitations, including an analysis of different base models, loss functions, explainability, and other desiderata of real-world applications. To overcome the identified limitations we study and develop methods for regressor chains. In particular we present a sequential Monte Carlo scheme in the framework of a probabilistic regressor chain, and we show it can be effective, flexible and useful in several types of data. We place regressor chains in context in general terms of multi-output learning with continuous outputs, and in doing this shed additional light on classifier chains.