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Hierarchy Decoder is All You Need To Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Hierarchical text classification (HTC) to a taxonomy is essential for various real applications butchallenging since HTC models often need to process a large volume of data that are severelyimbalanced and have hierarchy dependencies. Existing local and global approaches use deep learningto improve HTC by reducing the time complexity and incorporating the hierarchy dependencies.However, it is difficult to satisfy both conditions in a single HTC model. This paper proposes ahierarchy decoder (HiDEC) that uses recursive hierarchy decoding based on an encoder-decoderarchitecture. The key idea of the HiDEC involves decoding a context matrix into a sub-hierarchysequence using recursive hierarchy decoding, while staying aware of hierarchical dependenciesand level information. The HiDEC is a unified model that incorporates the benefits of existingapproaches, thereby alleviating the aforementioned difficulties without any trade-off. In addition, itcan be applied to both single- and multi-label classification with a minor modification. The superiorityof the proposed model was verified on two benchmark datasets (WOS-46985 and RCV1) with anexplanation of the reasons for its success


TENT: Text Classification Based on ENcoding Tree Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Text classification is a primary task in natural language processing (NLP). Recently, graph neural networks (GNNs) have developed rapidly and been applied to text classification tasks. Although more complex models tend to achieve better performance, research highly depends on the computing power of the device used. In this article, we propose TENT (https://github.com/Daisean/TENT) to obtain better text classification performance and reduce the reliance on computing power. Specifically, we first establish a dependency analysis graph for each text and then convert each graph into its corresponding encoding tree. The representation of the entire graph is obtained by updating the representation of the non-leaf nodes in the encoding tree. Experimental results show that our method outperforms other baselines on several datasets while having a simple structure and few parameters.


Cross-lingual Transfer for Text Classification with Dictionary-based Heterogeneous Graph

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

In cross-lingual text classification, it is required that task-specific training data in high-resource source languages are available, where the task is identical to that of a low-resource target language. However, collecting such training data can be infeasible because of the labeling cost, task characteristics, and privacy concerns. This paper proposes an alternative solution that uses only task-independent word embeddings of high-resource languages and bilingual dictionaries. First, we construct a dictionary-based heterogeneous graph (DHG) from bilingual dictionaries. This opens the possibility to use graph neural networks for cross-lingual transfer. The remaining challenge is the heterogeneity of DHG because multiple languages are considered. To address this challenge, we propose dictionary-based heterogeneous graph neural network (DHGNet) that effectively handles the heterogeneity of DHG by two-step aggregations, which are word-level and language-level aggregations. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms pretrained models even though it does not access to large corpora. Furthermore, it can perform well even though dictionaries contain many incorrect translations. Its robustness allows the usage of a wider range of dictionaries such as an automatically constructed dictionary and crowdsourced dictionary, which are convenient for real-world applications.


A Survey on Data-driven Software Vulnerability Assessment and Prioritization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Software Vulnerabilities (SVs) are increasing in complexity and scale, posing great security risks to many software systems. Given the limited resources in practice, SV assessment and prioritization help practitioners devise optimal SV mitigation plans based on various SV characteristics. The surge in SV data sources and data-driven techniques such as Machine Learning and Deep Learning have taken SV assessment and prioritization to the next level. Our survey provides a taxonomy of the past research efforts and highlights the best practices for data-driven SV assessment and prioritization. We also discuss the current limitations and propose potential solutions to address such issues.


Deep Learning Based Text Classification: A Comprehensive Review

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Deep learning based models have surpassed classical machine learning based approaches in various text classification tasks, including sentiment analysis, news categorization, question answering, and natural language inference. In this work, we provide a detailed review of more than 150 deep learning based models for text classification developed in recent years, and discuss their technical contributions, similarities, and strengths. We also provide a summary of more than 40 popular datasets widely used for text classification. Finally, we provide a quantitative analysis of the performance of different deep learning models on popular benchmarks, and discuss future research directions.


ClassiNet -- Predicting Missing Features for Short-Text Classification

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The fundamental problem in short-text classification is \emph{feature sparseness} -- the lack of feature overlap between a trained model and a test instance to be classified. We propose \emph{ClassiNet} -- a network of classifiers trained for predicting missing features in a given instance, to overcome the feature sparseness problem. Using a set of unlabeled training instances, we first learn binary classifiers as feature predictors for predicting whether a particular feature occurs in a given instance. Next, each feature predictor is represented as a vertex $v_i$ in the ClassiNet where a one-to-one correspondence exists between feature predictors and vertices. The weight of the directed edge $e_{ij}$ connecting a vertex $v_i$ to a vertex $v_j$ represents the conditional probability that given $v_i$ exists in an instance, $v_j$ also exists in the same instance. We show that ClassiNets generalize word co-occurrence graphs by considering implicit co-occurrences between features. We extract numerous features from the trained ClassiNet to overcome feature sparseness. In particular, for a given instance $\vec{x}$, we find similar features from ClassiNet that did not appear in $\vec{x}$, and append those features in the representation of $\vec{x}$. Moreover, we propose a method based on graph propagation to find features that are indirectly related to a given short-text. We evaluate ClassiNets on several benchmark datasets for short-text classification. Our experimental results show that by using ClassiNet, we can statistically significantly improve the accuracy in short-text classification tasks, without having to use any external resources such as thesauri for finding related features.