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Part A: A Practical Introduction to Text Classification


We will cover all the topics related to solving Multi-Class Text Classification problems with sample implementations in Python / TensorFlow / Keras environment. We will use a Kaggle Dataset in which there are 32 topics and more than 400K total reviews. You can access all the codes, videos, and posts of this tutorial series from the links below. In this tutorial series, there are several parts to cover the Text Classification with various Deep Learning Models topics. You can access all the parts from this index page.

Semantic Code Classification for Automated Machine Learning Artificial Intelligence

A range of applications for automatic machine learning need the generation process to be controllable. In this work, we propose a way to control the output via a sequence of simple actions, that are called semantic code classes. Finally, we present a semantic code classification task and discuss methods for solving this problem on the Natural Language to Machine Learning (NL2ML) dataset.

RheFrameDetect: A Text Classification System for Automatic Detection of Rhetorical Frames in AI from Open Sources Artificial Intelligence

Rhetorical Frames in AI can be thought of as expressions that describe AI development as a competition between two or more actors, such as governments or companies. Examples of such Frames include robotic arms race, AI rivalry, technological supremacy, cyberwarfare dominance and 5G race. Detection of Rhetorical Frames from open sources can help us track the attitudes of governments or companies towards AI, specifically whether attitudes are becoming more cooperative or competitive over time. Given the rapidly increasing volumes of open sources (online news media, twitter, blogs), it is difficult for subject matter experts to identify Rhetorical Frames in (near) real-time. Moreover, these sources are in general unstructured (noisy) and therefore, detecting Frames from these sources will require state-of-the-art text classification techniques. In this paper, we develop RheFrameDetect, a text classification system for (near) real-time capture of Rhetorical Frames from open sources. Given an input document, RheFrameDetect employs text classification techniques at multiple levels (document level and paragraph level) to identify all occurrences of Frames used in the discussion of AI. We performed extensive evaluation of the text classification techniques used in RheFrameDetect against human annotated Frames from multiple news sources. To further demonstrate the effectiveness of RheFrameDetect, we show multiple case studies depicting the Frames identified by RheFrameDetect compared against human annotated Frames.

TextRGNN: Residual Graph Neural Networks for Text Classification Artificial Intelligence

Recently, text classification model based on graph neural network (GNN) has attracted more and more attention. Most of these models adopt a similar network paradigm, that is, using pre-training node embedding initialization and two-layer graph convolution. In this work, we propose TextRGNN, an improved GNN structure that introduces residual connection to deepen the convolution network depth. Our structure can obtain a wider node receptive field and effectively suppress the over-smoothing of node features. In addition, we integrate the probabilistic language model into the initialization of graph node embedding, so that the non-graph semantic information of can be better extracted. The experimental results show that our model is general and efficient. It can significantly improve the classification accuracy whether in corpus level or text level, and achieve SOTA performance on a wide range of text classification datasets.

Unifying Model Explainability and Robustness for Joint Text Classification and Rationale Extraction Artificial Intelligence

Recent works have shown explainability and robustness are two crucial ingredients of trustworthy and reliable text classification. However, previous works usually address one of two aspects: i) how to extract accurate rationales for explainability while being beneficial to prediction; ii) how to make the predictive model robust to different types of adversarial attacks. Intuitively, a model that produces helpful explanations should be more robust against adversarial attacks, because we cannot trust the model that outputs explanations but changes its prediction under small perturbations. To this end, we propose a joint classification and rationale extraction model named AT-BMC. It includes two key mechanisms: mixed Adversarial Training (AT) is designed to use various perturbations in discrete and embedding space to improve the model's robustness, and Boundary Match Constraint (BMC) helps to locate rationales more precisely with the guidance of boundary information. Performances on benchmark datasets demonstrate that the proposed AT-BMC outperforms baselines on both classification and rationale extraction by a large margin. Robustness analysis shows that the proposed AT-BMC decreases the attack success rate effectively by up to 69%. The empirical results indicate that there are connections between robust models and better explanations.

Adversarial Examples for Extreme Multilabel Text Classification Artificial Intelligence

Extreme Multilabel Text Classification (XMTC) is a text classification problem in which, (i) the output space is extremely large, (ii) each data point may have multiple positive labels, and (iii) the data follows a strongly imbalanced distribution. With applications in recommendation systems and automatic tagging of web-scale documents, the research on XMTC has been focused on improving prediction accuracy and dealing with imbalanced data. However, the robustness of deep learning based XMTC models against adversarial examples has been largely underexplored. In this paper, we investigate the behaviour of XMTC models under adversarial attacks. To this end, first, we define adversarial attacks in multilabel text classification problems. We categorize attacking multilabel text classifiers as (a) positive-targeted, where the target positive label should fall out of top-k predicted labels, and (b) negative-targeted, where the target negative label should be among the top-k predicted labels. Then, by experiments on APLC-XLNet and AttentionXML, we show that XMTC models are highly vulnerable to positive-targeted attacks but more robust to negative-targeted ones. Furthermore, our experiments show that the success rate of positive-targeted adversarial attacks has an imbalanced distribution. More precisely, tail classes are highly vulnerable to adversarial attacks for which an attacker can generate adversarial samples with high similarity to the actual data-points. To overcome this problem, we explore the effect of rebalanced loss functions in XMTC where not only do they increase accuracy on tail classes, but they also improve the robustness of these classes against adversarial attacks. The code for our experiments is available at

Natural Language Processing in-and-for Design Research Artificial Intelligence

We review the scholarly contributions that utilise Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods to support the design process. Using a heuristic approach, we collected 223 articles published in 32 journals and within the period 1991-present. We present state-of-the-art NLP in-and-for design research by reviewing these articles according to the type of natural language text sources: internal reports, design concepts, discourse transcripts, technical publications, consumer opinions, and others. Upon summarizing and identifying the gaps in these contributions, we utilise an existing design innovation framework to identify the applications that are currently being supported by NLP. We then propose a few methodological and theoretical directions for future NLP in-and-for design research.

Hierarchy Decoder is All You Need To Text Classification Artificial Intelligence

Hierarchical text classification (HTC) to a taxonomy is essential for various real applications butchallenging since HTC models often need to process a large volume of data that are severelyimbalanced and have hierarchy dependencies. Existing local and global approaches use deep learningto improve HTC by reducing the time complexity and incorporating the hierarchy dependencies.However, it is difficult to satisfy both conditions in a single HTC model. This paper proposes ahierarchy decoder (HiDEC) that uses recursive hierarchy decoding based on an encoder-decoderarchitecture. The key idea of the HiDEC involves decoding a context matrix into a sub-hierarchysequence using recursive hierarchy decoding, while staying aware of hierarchical dependenciesand level information. The HiDEC is a unified model that incorporates the benefits of existingapproaches, thereby alleviating the aforementioned difficulties without any trade-off. In addition, itcan be applied to both single- and multi-label classification with a minor modification. The superiorityof the proposed model was verified on two benchmark datasets (WOS-46985 and RCV1) with anexplanation of the reasons for its success

Hierarchical Heterogeneous Graph Representation Learning for Short Text Classification Artificial Intelligence

Short text classification is a fundamental task in natural language processing. It is hard due to the lack of context information and labeled data in practice. In this paper, we propose a new method called SHINE, which is based on graph neural network (GNN), for short text classification. First, we model the short text dataset as a hierarchical heterogeneous graph consisting of word-level component graphs which introduce more semantic and syntactic information. Then, we dynamically learn a short document graph that facilitates effective label propagation among similar short texts. Thus, compared with existing GNN-based methods, SHINE can better exploit interactions between nodes of the same types and capture similarities between short texts. Extensive experiments on various benchmark short text datasets show that SHINE consistently outperforms state-of-the-art methods, especially with fewer labels.

Conical Classification For Computationally Efficient One-Class Topic Determination Artificial Intelligence

As the Internet grows in size, so does the amount of text based information that exists. For many application spaces it is paramount to isolate and identify texts that relate to a particular topic. While one-class classification would be ideal for such analysis, there is a relative lack of research regarding efficient approaches with high predictive power. By noting that the range of documents we wish to identify can be represented as positive linear combinations of the Vector Space Model representing our text, we propose Conical classification, an approach that allows us to identify if a document is of a particular topic in a computationally efficient manner. We also propose Normal Exclusion, a modified version of Bi-Normal Separation that makes it more suitable within the one-class classification context. We show in our analysis that our approach not only has higher predictive power on our datasets, but is also faster to compute.