Collaborating Authors


SimCVD: Simple Contrastive Voxel-Wise Representation Distillation for Semi-Supervised Medical Image Segmentation Artificial Intelligence

Automated segmentation in medical image analysis is a challenging task that requires a large amount of manually labeled data. However, most existing learning-based approaches usually suffer from limited manually annotated medical data, which poses a major practical problem for accurate and robust medical image segmentation. In addition, most existing semi-supervised approaches are usually not robust compared with the supervised counterparts, and also lack explicit modeling of geometric structure and semantic information, both of which limit the segmentation accuracy. In this work, we present SimCVD, a simple contrastive distillation framework that significantly advances state-of-the-art voxel-wise representation learning. We first describe an unsupervised training strategy, which takes two views of an input volume and predicts their signed distance maps of object boundaries in a contrastive objective, with only two independent dropout as mask. This simple approach works surprisingly well, performing on the same level as previous fully supervised methods with much less labeled data. We hypothesize that dropout can be viewed as a minimal form of data augmentation and makes the network robust to representation collapse. Then, we propose to perform structural distillation by distilling pair-wise similarities. We evaluate SimCVD on two popular datasets: the Left Atrial Segmentation Challenge (LA) and the NIH pancreas CT dataset. The results on the LA dataset demonstrate that, in two types of labeled ratios (i.e., 20% and 10%), SimCVD achieves an average Dice score of 90.85% and 89.03% respectively, a 0.91% and 2.22% improvement compared to previous best results. Our method can be trained in an end-to-end fashion, showing the promise of utilizing SimCVD as a general framework for downstream tasks, such as medical image synthesis and registration.

A Low Rank Promoting Prior for Unsupervised Contrastive Learning Artificial Intelligence

Unsupervised learning is just at a tipping point where it could really take off. Among these approaches, contrastive learning has seen tremendous progress and led to state-of-the-art performance. In this paper, we construct a novel probabilistic graphical model that effectively incorporates the low rank promoting prior into the framework of contrastive learning, referred to as LORAC. In contrast to the existing conventional self-supervised approaches that only considers independent learning, our hypothesis explicitly requires that all the samples belonging to the same instance class lie on the same subspace with small dimension. This heuristic poses particular joint learning constraints to reduce the degree of freedom of the problem during the search of the optimal network parameterization. Most importantly, we argue that the low rank prior employed here is not unique, and many different priors can be invoked in a similar probabilistic way, corresponding to different hypotheses about underlying truth behind the contrastive features. Empirical evidences show that the proposed algorithm clearly surpasses the state-of-the-art approaches on multiple benchmarks, including image classification, object detection, instance segmentation and keypoint detection.

CCGL: Contrastive Cascade Graph Learning Artificial Intelligence

Supervised learning, while prevalent for information cascade modeling, often requires abundant labeled data in training, and the trained model is not easy to generalize across tasks and datasets. Semi-supervised learning facilitates unlabeled data for cascade understanding in pre-training. It often learns fine-grained feature-level representations, which can easily result in overfitting for downstream tasks. Recently, contrastive self-supervised learning is designed to alleviate these two fundamental issues in linguistic and visual tasks. However, its direct applicability for cascade modeling, especially graph cascade related tasks, remains underexplored. In this work, we present Contrastive Cascade Graph Learning (CCGL), a novel framework for cascade graph representation learning in a contrastive, self-supervised, and task-agnostic way. In particular, CCGL first designs an effective data augmentation strategy to capture variation and uncertainty. Second, it learns a generic model for graph cascade tasks via self-supervised contrastive pre-training using both unlabeled and labeled data. Third, CCGL learns a task-specific cascade model via fine-tuning using labeled data. Finally, to make the model transferable across datasets and cascade applications, CCGL further enhances the model via distillation using a teacher-student architecture. We demonstrate that CCGL significantly outperforms its supervised and semi-supervised counterpartsfor several downstream tasks.

A Review of Generative Adversarial Networks in Cancer Imaging: New Applications, New Solutions Artificial Intelligence

Despite technological and medical advances, the detection, interpretation, and treatment of cancer based on imaging data continue to pose significant challenges. These include high inter-observer variability, difficulty of small-sized lesion detection, nodule interpretation and malignancy determination, inter- and intra-tumour heterogeneity, class imbalance, segmentation inaccuracies, and treatment effect uncertainty. The recent advancements in Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) in computer vision as well as in medical imaging may provide a basis for enhanced capabilities in cancer detection and analysis. In this review, we assess the potential of GANs to address a number of key challenges of cancer imaging, including data scarcity and imbalance, domain and dataset shifts, data access and privacy, data annotation and quantification, as well as cancer detection, tumour profiling and treatment planning. We provide a critical appraisal of the existing literature of GANs applied to cancer imagery, together with suggestions on future research directions to address these challenges. We analyse and discuss 163 papers that apply adversarial training techniques in the context of cancer imaging and elaborate their methodologies, advantages and limitations. With this work, we strive to bridge the gap between the needs of the clinical cancer imaging community and the current and prospective research on GANs in the artificial intelligence community.

Semi-supervised Learning for Marked Temporal Point Processes Artificial Intelligence

Temporal Point Processes (TPPs) are often used to represent the sequence of events ordered as per the time of occurrence. Owing to their flexible nature, TPPs have been used to model different scenarios and have shown applicability in various real-world applications. While TPPs focus on modeling the event occurrence, Marked Temporal Point Process (MTPP) focuses on modeling the category/class of the event as well (termed as the marker). Research in MTPP has garnered substantial attention over the past few years, with an extensive focus on supervised algorithms. Despite the research focus, limited attention has been given to the challenging problem of developing solutions in semi-supervised settings, where algorithms have access to a mix of labeled and unlabeled data. This research proposes a novel algorithm for Semi-supervised Learning for Marked Temporal Point Processes (SSL-MTPP) applicable in such scenarios. The proposed SSL-MTPP algorithm utilizes a combination of labeled and unlabeled data for learning a robust marker prediction model. The proposed algorithm utilizes an RNN-based Encoder-Decoder module for learning effective representations of the time sequence. The efficacy of the proposed algorithm has been demonstrated via multiple protocols on the Retweet dataset, where the proposed SSL-MTPP demonstrates improved performance in comparison to the traditional supervised learning approach.

Unsupervised Learning of Depth and Depth-of-Field Effect from Natural Images with Aperture Rendering Generative Adversarial Networks Machine Learning

Understanding the 3D world from 2D projected natural images is a fundamental challenge in computer vision and graphics. Recently, an unsupervised learning approach has garnered considerable attention owing to its advantages in data collection. However, to mitigate training limitations, typical methods need to impose assumptions for viewpoint distribution (e.g., a dataset containing various viewpoint images) or object shape (e.g., symmetric objects). These assumptions often restrict applications; for instance, the application to non-rigid objects or images captured from similar viewpoints (e.g., flower or bird images) remains a challenge. To complement these approaches, we propose aperture rendering generative adversarial networks (AR-GANs), which equip aperture rendering on top of GANs, and adopt focus cues to learn the depth and depth-of-field (DoF) effect of unlabeled natural images. To address the ambiguities triggered by unsupervised setting (i.e., ambiguities between smooth texture and out-of-focus blurs, and between foreground and background blurs), we develop DoF mixture learning, which enables the generator to learn real image distribution while generating diverse DoF images. In addition, we devise a center focus prior to guiding the learning direction. In the experiments, we demonstrate the effectiveness of AR-GANs in various datasets, such as flower, bird, and face images, demonstrate their portability by incorporating them into other 3D representation learning GANs, and validate their applicability in shallow DoF rendering.

Recent Deep Semi-supervised Learning Approaches and Related Works Artificial Intelligence

The author of this work proposes an overview of the recent semi-supervised learning approaches and related works. Despite the remarkable success of neural networks in various applications, there exist few formidable constraints including the need for a large amount of labeled data. Therefore, semi-supervised learning, which is a learning scheme in which the scarce labels and a larger amount of unlabeled data are utilized to train models (e.g., deep neural networks) is getting more important. Based on the key assumptions of semi-supervised learning, which are the manifold assumption, cluster assumption, and continuity assumption, the work reviews the recent semi-supervised learning approaches. In particular, the methods in regard to using deep neural networks in a semi-supervised learning setting are primarily discussed. In addition, the existing works are first classified based on the underlying idea and explained, and then the holistic approaches that unify the aforementioned ideas are detailed.

Pre-Trained Models: Past, Present and Future Artificial Intelligence

Large-scale pre-trained models (PTMs) such as BERT and GPT have recently achieved great success and become a milestone in the field of artificial intelligence (AI). Owing to sophisticated pre-training objectives and huge model parameters, large-scale PTMs can effectively capture knowledge from massive labeled and unlabeled data. By storing knowledge into huge parameters and fine-tuning on specific tasks, the rich knowledge implicitly encoded in huge parameters can benefit a variety of downstream tasks, which has been extensively demonstrated via experimental verification and empirical analysis. It is now the consensus of the AI community to adopt PTMs as backbone for downstream tasks rather than learning models from scratch. In this paper, we take a deep look into the history of pre-training, especially its special relation with transfer learning and self-supervised learning, to reveal the crucial position of PTMs in the AI development spectrum. Further, we comprehensively review the latest breakthroughs of PTMs. These breakthroughs are driven by the surge of computational power and the increasing availability of data, towards four important directions: designing effective architectures, utilizing rich contexts, improving computational efficiency, and conducting interpretation and theoretical analysis. Finally, we discuss a series of open problems and research directions of PTMs, and hope our view can inspire and advance the future study of PTMs.

Game of GANs: Game Theoretical Models for Generative Adversarial Networks Artificial Intelligence

Generative Adversarial Network, as a promising research direction in the AI community, recently attracts considerable attention due to its ability to generating high-quality realistic data. GANs are a competing game between two neural networks trained in an adversarial manner to reach a Nash equilibrium. Despite the improvement accomplished in GANs in the last years, there remain several issues to solve. In this way, how to tackle these issues and make advances leads to rising research interests. This paper reviews literature that leverages the game theory in GANs and addresses how game models can relieve specific generative models' challenges and improve the GAN's performance. In particular, we firstly review some preliminaries, including the basic GAN model and some game theory backgrounds. After that, we present our taxonomy to summarize the state-of-the-art solutions into three significant categories: modified game model, modified architecture, and modified learning method. The classification is based on the modifications made in the basic model by the proposed approaches from the game-theoretic perspective. We further classify each category into several subcategories. Following the proposed taxonomy, we explore the main objective of each class and review the recent work in each group. Finally, we discuss the remaining challenges in this field and present the potential future research topics.

RETRIEVE: Coreset Selection for Efficient and Robust Semi-Supervised Learning Artificial Intelligence

Semi-supervised learning (SSL) algorithms have had great success in recent years in limited labeled data regimes. However, the current state-of-the-art SSL algorithms are computationally expensive and entail significant compute time and energy requirements. This can prove to be a huge limitation for many smaller companies and academic groups. Our main insight is that training on a subset of unlabeled data instead of entire unlabeled data enables the current SSL algorithms to converge faster, thereby reducing the computational costs significantly. In this work, we propose RETRIEVE, a coreset selection framework for efficient and robust semi-supervised learning. RETRIEVE selects the coreset by solving a mixed discrete-continuous bi-level optimization problem such that the selected coreset minimizes the labeled set loss. We use a one-step gradient approximation and show that the discrete optimization problem is approximately submodular, thereby enabling simple greedy algorithms to obtain the coreset. We empirically demonstrate on several real-world datasets that existing SSL algorithms like VAT, Mean-Teacher, FixMatch, when used with RETRIEVE, achieve a) faster training times, b) better performance when unlabeled data consists of Out-of-Distribution(OOD) data and imbalance. More specifically, we show that with minimal accuracy degradation, RETRIEVE achieves a speedup of around 3X in the traditional SSL setting and achieves a speedup of 5X compared to state-of-the-art (SOTA) robust SSL algorithms in the case of imbalance and OOD data.