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### The 13 Best Machine Learning Certifications Online for 2021

The editors at Solutions Review have compiled this list of the best machine learning certifications online to consider acquiring. Machine learning involves studying computer algorithms that improve automatically through experience. It is a sub-field of artificial intelligence where machine learning algorithms build models based on sample (or training) data. Once a predictive model is constructed it can be used to make predictions or decisions without being specifically commanded to do so. Machine learning is now a mainstream technology with a wide variety of uses and applications.

### Solving and Learning Nonlinear PDEs with Gaussian Processes

We introduce a simple, rigorous, and unified framework for solving nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs), and for solving inverse problems (IPs) involving the identification of parameters in PDEs, using the framework of Gaussian processes. The proposed approach (1) provides a natural generalization of collocation kernel methods to nonlinear PDEs and IPs, (2) has guaranteed convergence with a path to compute error bounds in the PDE setting, and (3) inherits the state-of-the-art computational complexity of linear solvers for dense kernel matrices. The main idea of our method is to approximate the solution of a given PDE with a MAP estimator of a Gaussian process given the observation of the PDE at a finite number of collocation points. Although this optimization problem is infinite-dimensional, it can be reduced to a finite-dimensional one by introducing additional variables corresponding to the values of the derivatives of the solution at collocation points; this generalizes the representer theorem arising in Gaussian process regression. The reduced optimization problem has a quadratic loss and nonlinear constraints, and it is in turn solved with a variant of the Gauss-Newton method. The resulting algorithm (a) can be interpreted as solving successive linearizations of the nonlinear PDE, and (b) is found in practice to converge in a small number (two to ten) of iterations in experiments conducted on a range of PDEs. For IPs, while the traditional approach has been to iterate between the identifications of parameters in the PDE and the numerical approximation of its solution, our algorithm tackles both simultaneously. Experiments on nonlinear elliptic PDEs, Burgers' equation, a regularized Eikonal equation, and an IP for permeability identification in Darcy flow illustrate the efficacy and scope of our framework.

### Top 60 Artificial Intelligence Interview Questions & Answers

A month ago, India's first driverless metro train in the national capital, Delhi, was launched. Yes! Like it or not, automation is happening and will continue to happen in places where you couldn't have imagined before. Artificial Intelligence has swept away the world around us, leading to the natural progression of demand for skilled professionals in the job market. It is one field that will never go outdated and will continue to grow. Wondering how to leverage this opportunity? How can you prepare yourself for such a league of jobs that make the world go around? We have got a repository of questions to help you get ready for your next interview! This article will cover the artificial intelligence interview questions and help you with the much-needed tips and tricks to crack the interview. The article is divided into three parts: basic artificial intelligence questions, intermediate level, and advanced AI questions. AnalytixLabs is India's top-ranked AI & Data Science Institute and is in its tenth year.

### White Paper Machine Learning in Certified Systems

Machine Learning (ML) seems to be one of the most promising solution to automate partially or completely some of the complex tasks currently realized by humans, such as driving vehicles, recognizing voice, etc. It is also an opportunity to implement and embed new capabilities out of the reach of classical implementation techniques. However, ML techniques introduce new potential risks. Therefore, they have only been applied in systems where their benefits are considered worth the increase of risk. In practice, ML techniques raise multiple challenges that could prevent their use in systems submitted to certification constraints. But what are the actual challenges? Can they be overcome by selecting appropriate ML techniques, or by adopting new engineering or certification practices? These are some of the questions addressed by the ML Certification 3 Workgroup (WG) set-up by the Institut de Recherche Technologique Saint Exup\'ery de Toulouse (IRT), as part of the DEEL Project.

### Hierarchical Bayesian Model for the Transfer of Knowledge on Spatial Concepts based on Multimodal Information

This paper proposes a hierarchical Bayesian model based on spatial concepts that enables a robot to transfer the knowledge of places from experienced environments to a new environment. The transfer of knowledge based on spatial concepts is modeled as the calculation process of the posterior distribution based on the observations obtained in each environment with the parameters of spatial concepts generalized to environments as prior knowledge. We conducted experiments to evaluate the generalization performance of spatial knowledge for general places such as kitchens and the adaptive performance of spatial knowledge for unique places such as `Emma's room' in a new environment. In the experiments, the accuracies of the proposed method and conventional methods were compared in the prediction task of location names from an image and a position, and the prediction task of positions from a location name. The experimental results demonstrated that the proposed method has a higher prediction accuracy of location names and positions than the conventional method owing to the transfer of knowledge.

### Active Testing: Sample-Efficient Model Evaluation

We introduce active testing: a new framework for sample-efficient model evaluation. While approaches like active learning reduce the number of labels needed for model training, existing literature largely ignores the cost of labeling test data, typically unrealistically assuming large test sets for model evaluation. This creates a disconnect to real applications where test labels are important and just as expensive, e.g. for optimizing hyperparameters. Active testing addresses this by carefully selecting the test points to label, ensuring model evaluation is sample-efficient. To this end, we derive theoretically-grounded and intuitive acquisition strategies that are specifically tailored to the goals of active testing, noting these are distinct to those of active learning. Actively selecting labels introduces a bias; we show how to remove that bias while reducing the variance of the estimator at the same time. Active testing is easy to implement, effective, and can be applied to any supervised machine learning method. We demonstrate this on models including WideResNet and Gaussian processes on datasets including CIFAR-100.

### Consistent Sparse Deep Learning: Theory and Computation

Deep learning has been the engine powering many successes of data science. However, the deep neural network (DNN), as the basic model of deep learning, is often excessively over-parameterized, causing many difficulties in training, prediction and interpretation. We propose a frequentist-like method for learning sparse DNNs and justify its consistency under the Bayesian framework: the proposed method could learn a sparse DNN with at most \$O(n/\log(n))\$ connections and nice theoretical guarantees such as posterior consistency, variable selection consistency and asymptotically optimal generalization bounds. In particular, we establish posterior consistency for the sparse DNN with a mixture Gaussian prior, show that the structure of the sparse DNN can be consistently determined using a Laplace approximation-based marginal posterior inclusion probability approach, and use Bayesian evidence to elicit sparse DNNs learned by an optimization method such as stochastic gradient descent in multiple runs with different initializations. The proposed method is computationally more efficient than standard Bayesian methods for large-scale sparse DNNs. The numerical results indicate that the proposed method can perform very well for large-scale network compression and high-dimensional nonlinear variable selection, both advancing interpretable machine learning.

### D'ya like DAGs? A Survey on Structure Learning and Causal Discovery

It is important for a broad range of applications, including policy making [136], medical imaging [30], advertisement [22], the development of medical treatments [189], the evaluation of evidence within legal frameworks [183, 218], social science [82, 96, 246], biology [235], and many others. It is also a burgeoning topic in machine learning and artificial intelligence [17, 66, 76, 144, 210, 247, 255], where it has been argued that a consideration for causality is crucial for reasoning about the world. In order to discover causal relations, and thereby gain causal understanding, one may perform interventions and manipulations as part of a randomized experiment. These experiments may not only allow researchers or agents to identify causal relationships, but also to estimate the magnitude of these relationships. Unfortunately, in many cases, it may not be possible to undertake such experiments due to prohibitive cost, ethical concerns, or impracticality.

### Learning Proposals for Probabilistic Programs with Inference Combinators

We develop operators for construction of proposals in probabilistic programs, which we refer to as inference combinators. Inference combinators define a grammar over importance samplers that compose primitive operations such as application of a transition kernel and importance resampling. Proposals in these samplers can be parameterized using neural networks, which in turn can be trained by optimizing variational objectives. The result is a framework for user-programmable variational methods that are correct by construction and can be tailored to specific models. We demonstrate the flexibility of this framework by implementing advanced variational methods based on amortized Gibbs sampling and annealing.

### A practical tutorial on Variational Bayes

Bayesian inference has been long called for Bayesian computation techniques that are scalable to large data sets and applicable in big and complex models with a huge number of unknown parameters to infer. Sampling methods, such as Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC), in their current development do not meet this need. Sampling methods have not been successfully used in some modern areas such as deep neural networks. Even in more traditional areas such as graphical modelling and mixture modelling, it is very challenging to use MCMC and SMC. Variational Bayes (VB) is an optimization-based technique for approximate Bayesian inference, and provides a computationally efficient alternative to sampling methods.